Kenneth S. Kosik

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate protein expression by targeting the mRNA of protein-coding genes for either cleavage or repression of translation. The roles of miRNAs in lineage determination and proliferation as well as the location of several miRNA genes at sites of translocation breakpoints or deletions has led to the(More)
Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the(More)
Several hundred microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been cloned from a wide range of organisms across phylogeny. Despite the high degree of conservation of miRNAs, their functions in general, and in mammals particularly, are just beginning to be defined. Here we show that an oligonucleotide DNA array can be successfully used for the simultaneous analysis of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional modulators of gene expression and play an important role in many developmental processes. We report here that expression of microRNA-145 (miR-145) is low in self-renewing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) but highly upregulated during differentiation. We identify the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 as(More)
The transport of mRNAs into developing dendrites and axons may be a basic mechanism to localize cytoskeletal proteins to growth cones and influence microfilament organization. Using isoform-specific antibodies and probes for in situ hybridization, we observed distinct localization patterns for beta- and gamma-actin within cultured cerebrocortical neurons.(More)
Sorting of RNAs to specific subcellular loci occurs in diverse settings from fly oocytes to mammalian neurons. Using the membrane-permeable nucleic acid stain SYTO 14, we directly visualized the translocation of endogenous RNA in living cells. Labeled RNA was distributed nonrandomly as discrete granules in neuronal processes. The labeled granules(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive accumulation in selected neurons of protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. Rare inherited forms of PD are caused by autosomal dominant mutations in alpha-synuclein or by autosomal recessive mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. We(More)
A class of small, non-coding transcripts called microRNAs (miRNAs) that provide a crucial and pervasive layer of post-transcriptional gene regulation has recently emerged and become the focus of intense research. miRNAs are abundant in the nervous system, where they have key roles in development and are likely to be important mediators of plasticity. A(More)
RNA granules are a macromolecular structure observed in neurons, where they serve as motile units that translocate mRNAs. Isolated RNA granules are highly enriched in Staufen protein and ultrastructurally contain densely packed clusters of ribosomes. With depolarization, many mRNAs, including those involved in plasticity, rapidly shift from the RNA granule(More)
The CaMKIIalpha mRNA extends into distal hippocampal dendrites, and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3'UTR of the CaMKIIalpha mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. The CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR formed discrete granules throughout the(More)