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Oestrogen is considered to be the 'female' hormone, whereas testosterone is considered the 'male' hormone. However, both hormones are present in both sexes. Thus sexual distinctions are not qualitative differences, but rather result from quantitative divergence in hormone concentrations and differential expressions of steroid hormone receptors. In males,(More)
17Beta-estradiol can potentiate kainate-induced currents in isolated hippocampal CA1 neurons. The action of estrogen was rapid in onset, steroid and stereospecific, and reversible. The potentiation could be mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP, an activator of protein kinase A. As the hippocampus expresses both isoforms of the intracellular estrogen receptor (ER alpha(More)
Precise control of transcriptional programmes underlying metazoan development is modulated by enzymatically active co-regulatory complexes, coupled with epigenetic strategies. One thing that remains unclear is how specific members of histone modification enzyme families, such as histone methyltransferases and demethylases, are used in vivo to simultaneously(More)
The physiological responses of the rodent uterus to acute estrogen (E) dosing can be divided into early and late events. Examples of early responses include increased RNA transcription, hyperemia, and water imbibition 2 and 6 h following E administration respectively, whereas later responses include cycles of DNA synthesis and mitosis of epithelial cells(More)
BACKGROUND Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widely found in the environment. Estrogen-like activity is attributed to EDCs, such as bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and zearalenone (Zea), but mechanisms of action and diversity of effects are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We used in vitro models to evaluate the mechanistic actions of BPA,(More)
Recent data indicate that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may have a function in mediating the mitogenic effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in the uterus and in regulating the growth of uterine neoplasms. This study was designed to determine whether synthetic and plant-derived chemicals that interact with estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and elicit(More)
The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E 2) is a key regulator of growth, differentiation and function in a wide array of target tissues, including the male and female reproductive tracts, mammary gland, skeletal and cardiovascular systems. The predominant biological effects of E 2 are mediated through two distinct intracellular receptors, ERα and ERβ, each(More)
Gonadal steroid hormones regulate sexually dimorphic development of brain functions and behaviors. Their nuclear receptors offer the opportunity to relate molecular events in neurons to simple instinctive mammalian behaviors. We have determined the role of estrogen receptor (ER) activation by endogenous estrogen in the development of male-typical behaviors(More)
Although it has been known for some time that estrogen exerts a profound influence on brain development a definitive demonstration of the role of the classical estrogen receptor (ERalpha) in sexual differentiation has remained elusive. In the present study we used a sexually dimorphic population of dopaminergic neurons in the anteroventral periventricular(More)
The gonadal steroid estrogen exerts an important modulatory influence on the activity of multiple neuronal networks. In addition to classical genomic mechanisms of action, estrogen also exerts poorly understood rapid, nongenomic effects on neurons. To examine whether estrogen may exert rapid actions on intracellular signaling within gonadotropin-releasing(More)