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—This paper studies the carrier-to-interference ratio C I and carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio C I+N performance at the mobile station (MS) within a multi-tier network composed of M tiers of wireless networks, with each tier modeled as the homogeneous n-dimensional (n-D, n=1,2, and 3) shotgun cellular system, where the base station (BS) distribution(More)
All users of spreadsheets struggle with the problem of errors. Errors are thought to be prevalent in spreadsheets, and in some instances they have cost organizations millions of dollars. In a previous study of 50 operational spreadsheets we found errors in 0.8% to 1.8% of all formula cells, depending on how errors are defined. In the current study we(More)
In this paper, the performance of cellular systems in which the base-stations (BS) are randomly placed (so-called shotgun cellular system, SCS) is studied. Previous results for a uniform 2-dimensional distribution of BS are generalized to non-uniform placement of BS in any dimension. The carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) and the(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Among those who study spreadsheet use, it is widely accepted that errors are prevalent in operational spreadsheets and that errors can lead to poor decisions and cost millions of dollars. However, relatively little is known about what types of errors actually occur, how they were created, how they can be detected, and(More)
This paper considers random cellular systems in one, two, or three dimensions. We study the carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) and the carrier-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (CINR) at the mobile-station (MS), by using the so-called shotgun cellular system (SCS) model for the cellular system. In a SCS, the base-stations (BS) are placed randomly according(More)