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Anton is a recently completed special-purpose supercomputer designed for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecular systems. The machine's specialized hardware dramatically increases the speed of MD calculations, making possible for the first time the simulation of biological molecules at an atomic level of detail for periods on the order of a(More)
Anton 2 is a second-generation special-purpose supercomputer for molecular dynamics simulations that achieves significant gains in performance, programmability, and capacity compared to its predecessor, Anton 1. The architecture of Anton 2 is tailored for fine-grained event-driven operation, which improves performance by increasing the overlap of(More)
Caramel Colour IV, a type of caramel colour used in the manufacture of cola soft drinks, was evaluated for subchronic and chronic toxicity in rats, and carcinogenicity in Fischer-344 (F344) rats and B6C3F1 mice. In each of the studies, Caramel Colour IV was mixed with demineralized water and the solutions given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid.(More)
—Emerging application domains such as interactive vision, animation, and multimedia collaboration display dynamic scalable parallelism and high-computational requirements, making them good candidates for executing on parallel architectures such as SMPs and clusters of SMPs. Stampede is a programming system that has many of the needed functionalities such as(More)
Beagle dogs and Fischer 344 rats were fed diets containing 0, 36 or 72 units Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase (Bsa)/g food or of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase (cBsa)/g food. The dogs (four/sex/group) received treated diets for 13 wk. For the rat studies, the parental (F0) generation (12 males and 24 females/group for the Bsa study, and 26(More)
A software cache implements instruction and data caching entirely in software. Dynamic binary rewriting offers a means to specialize the software cache miss checks at cache miss time. We describe a software cache system implemented using dynamic binary rewriting and observe that the combination is particularly appropriate for the scenario of a simple(More)
This study compares the predictive power of a single measurement of CD8+CD38+, CD8+CD45RO+ or CD8+CD38+CD45RO+ subpopulations in predicting progression to AIDS in a cohort of HIV+ long-term surviving injecting drug users. The results showed that both the total CD8+ percentage, and the CD8+CD38+ and CD8+CD38+CD45RO+ subpopulations of cells all individually(More)
In molecular dynamics simulations, control over temperature and pressure is typically achieved by augmenting the original system with additional dynamical variables to create a thermostat and a barostat, respectively. These variables generally evolve on timescales much longer than those of particle motion, but typical integrator implementations update the(More)