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A method to measure cutaneous hyperalgesia to thermal stimulation in unrestrained animals is described. The testing paradigm uses an automated detection of the behavioral end-point; repeated testing does not contribute to the development of the observed hyperalgesia. Carrageenan-induced inflammation resulted in significantly shorter paw withdrawal latencies(More)
The initial pain from tissue damage may result from the release of cytoplasmic components that act upon nociceptors, the sensors for pain. ATP was proposed to fill this role because it elicits pain when applied intradermally and may be the active compound in cytoplasmic fractions that cause pain. Moreover, ATP opens ligand-gated ion channels (P2X receptors)(More)
The P2X3 receptor subunit, a member of the P2X family of ATP-gated ion channels, is almost exclusively localized in sensory neurons. In the present study, we sought to gain insight into the role of P2X3 and P2X3-containing neurons in sensory transmission, using immunohistochemical approaches. In rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG), P2X3-immunoreactivity (-ir) was(More)
Central antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids have been well documented. However, relatively little is known about the peripheral effects of the cannabinoids on inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of peripherally administered cannabinoids on three indices of inflammation: carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia,(More)
The pharmacological desensitization of receptors is a fundamental mechanism for regulating the activity of neuronal systems. The TRPA1 channel plays a key role in the processing of noxious information and can undergo functional desensitization by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that TRPA1 is desensitized by homologous (mustard oil; a TRPA1 agonist) and(More)
Cannabinoids are known to have multiple sites of action in the nociceptive system, leading to reduced pain sensation. However, the peripheral mechanism(s) by which this phenomenon occurs remains an issue that has yet to be resolved. Because phosphorylation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential subtype V1) plays a key role in the induction of thermal(More)
Although the cannabinoid agonists R-(+)-(2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrol[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate [WIN 55,212-2 (WIN)] and (R,S)-3-(2-iodo-5-nitrobenzoyl)-1-(1-methyl-2-piperidinylmethyl)-1H-indole (AM1241) exert peripheral antihyperalgesia in inflammatory pain models, the mechanism for(More)
The transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1) channel is believed to be involved in many forms of acute and chronic hyperalgesia. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) regulates chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia by controlling gene expression in sensory neurons, including genes involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia in the dental pulp. We hypothesized that(More)
The identification of a family of neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit genes establishes the potential for multiple subtypes with diverse physiological functions. Virtually all of the high affinity nicotinic receptors measured to date in the rodent CNS are composed of alpha4 and beta2 subunits only. However, the demonstration of other subunit transcripts in(More)
Cannabinoids, such as Delta9-THC, are capable of inhibiting nociception, i.e., pain transmission, at least in part, by interacting with spinal Gi/Go-coupled cannabinoid receptors. What is not known, however, is the antinociceptive role of endogenous spinal cannabinoids. If endogenous cannabinoids modulate basal nociceptive thresholds, then alterations in(More)