Kenneth M. Halanych

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The suspension-feeding metazoan subkingdom Lophophorata exhibits characteristics of both deuterostomes and protostomes. Because the morphology and embryology of lophophorates are phylogenetically ambiguous, their origin is a major unsolved problem of metazoan phylogenetics. The complete 18S ribosomal DNA sequences of all three lophophorate phyla were(More)
Leonid L. Moroz, Kevin M. Kocot, Mathew R. Citarella, Sohn Dosung, Tigran P. Norekian, Inna S. Povolotskaya, Anastasia P. Grigorenko, Christopher Dailey, Eugene Berezikov, Katherine M. Buckley, Andrey Ptitsyn, Denis Reshetov, Krishanu Mukherjee, Tatiana P. Moroz, Yelena Bobkova, Fahong Yu, Vladimir V. Kapitonov, Jerzy Jurka, Yuri V. Bobkov, Joshua J. Swore,(More)
■ Abstract Molecular tools have profoundly rearranged our understanding of metazoan phylogeny. Initially based on the nuclear small ribosomal subunit (SSU or 18S) gene, recent hypotheses have been corroborated by several sources of data (including the nuclear large ribosomal subunit, Hox genes, mitochondrial gene order, concatenated mitochondrial genes, and(More)
Annelida comprises an ancient and ecologically important animal phylum with over 16,500 described species and members are the dominant macrofauna of the deep sea. Traditionally, two major groups are distinguished: Clitellata (including earthworms, leeches) and "Polychaeta" (mostly marine worms). Recent analyses of molecular data suggest that Annelida may(More)
Evolutionary relationships among the eight major lineages of Mollusca have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance. Previous investigations of molluscan phylogeny, based primarily on nuclear ribosomal gene sequences or morphological data, have been unsuccessful at elucidating these relationships. Recently, phylogenomic studies using(More)
Annelida is one of three animal groups possessing segmentation and is central in considerations about the evolution of different character traits. It has even been proposed that the bilaterian ancestor resembled an annelid. However, a robust phylogeny of Annelida, especially with respect to the basal relationships, has been lacking. Our study based on(More)
Open-ocean environments provide few obvious barriers to the dispersal of marine organisms. Major currents and/or environmental gradients potentially impede gene flow. One system hypothesized to form an open-ocean dispersal barrier is the Antarctic Polar Front, an area characterized by marked temperature change, deep water, and the high-flow Antarctic(More)
Of the three major bilaterian clades, Lophotrochozoa has the greatest diversity and disparity of body forms and is the least understood in terms of phylogenetic history. Within this clade, small nuclear ribosomal subunit (SSU or 18S) studies have failed to provide resolution and other molecular markers have insufficient taxon sampling. To examine(More)
Despite advances in phylogenetic methods, there are still a number of enigmatic phyla whose affinities remain poorly resolved. One of the most recalcitrant of these is a group of small predatory marine invertebrates, the chaetognaths (arrow worms). Resolution of the phylogenetic position of the chaetognaths is key for reconstructing the evolutionary history(More)
Despite considerable interest in physiology, evolution and life history of Antarctic marine invertebrates, only a limited number of studies have examined the genetic variability and diversity patterns of these organisms. Moreover, understanding and characterizing patterns of Antarctic biodiversity has taken on a degree of urgency because of potential(More)