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One component of individual risk for alcoholism may involve cognitive vulnerabilities prodromal to alcoholism onset. This prospective study of 198 boys followed between 3 and 14 years of age evaluated neurocognitive functioning across three groups who varied in familial risk for future alcoholism. Measures of intelligence, reward-response, and a battery of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. METHOD A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime drinking(More)
In an extension of previous work, we studied the behavioral correlates of medial frontal lobe glucose hypometabolism in chronically alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one male patients who were detoxified, medically stable, and free of other central nervous system risk factors for neuropsychological impairment were examined with (1) anatomic imaging (CT or(More)
AIMS Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse(More)
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) is often used in neuropsychological studies to effect ex-post-facto adjustment of performance variables amongst groups of subjects mismatched on some relevant demographic variable. This paper reviews some of the statistical assumptions underlying this usage. In an attempt to illustrate the complexities of this statistical(More)
As part of a six-center clinical trial of the effectiveness of continuous v nocturnal oxygen in the management of hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we performed detailed neuropsychologic assessments of these patients prior to their beginning treatment. The 203 patients (age, 65 years; Pao2, 51 mm Hg; forced expiratory volume in 1 s,(More)
This study first examined the respective relations of resiliency and reactive control with executive functioning. It then examined the relationship of these different domains to the development of academic and social outcomes, and to the emergence of internalizing and externalizing problem behavior in adolescence. Resiliency and reactive control were(More)
The Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) showed previously that patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently suffered from neuropsychologic deficit and experienced disturbed mood, personality, and life quality. The present study has followed up 150 NOTT patients six months after they were randomized to continuous oxygen(More)
Two hundred three patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 73 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, race, and neighborhood of residence were administered three self-report inventories concerned with the following four dimensions of life quality: emotional functioning, social-role functioning, activities of daily(More)
The Symbol Digit Modalities Test is a substitution task that is the inverse of the Digit Symbol Test. The familiar task of filling numbers in boxes, and the availability of an oral administration, make this a popular screening instrument for brain impairment. Normative data were previously reported for a variety of clinical groups, but complete information(More)