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Comparison of the levels of nucleotide diversity in humans and apes may provide much insight into the mechanisms of maintenance of DNA polymorphism and the demographic history of these organisms. In the past, abundant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism data indicated that nucleotide diversity (pi) is more than threefold higher in chimpanzees than in(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States, with estimates of 4 million HCV-infected individuals in the United States and 170 million worldwide. Most (70-80%) HCV infections persist and about 30% of individuals with persistent infection develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular(More)
The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly(More)
BACKGROUND Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been investigated as a candidate gene in many neurologic disorders involving catecholaminergic systems. The NlaIII restriction site polymorphism (RSP) at COMT is a G<-->A (site absent<-->site present) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 322/472 (in the short or long mRNA) that results in a(More)
To analyze candidate genes and establish complex genotype-phenotype relationships against a background of high natural genome sequence variability, we have developed approaches to (i) compare candidate gene sequence information in multiple individuals; (ii) predict haplotypes from numerous variants; and (iii) classify haplotypes and identify specific(More)
Human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) is distinctive among the retroviruses in the human genome in that many HERV-K proviruses were inserted into the human germline after the human and chimpanzee lineages evolutionarily diverged [1, 2]. However, all full-length endogenous retroviruses described to date in humans are sufficiently old that all humans(More)
Two groups of populations with completely different lifestyles-the Pygmy hunter-gatherers and the Bantu-speaking farmers-coexist in Central Africa. We investigated the origins of these two groups and the interactions between them, by analyzing mtDNA variation in 1,404 individuals from 20 farming populations and 9 Pygmy populations from Central Africa, with(More)
BACKGROUND The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the primary mechanism for dopamine clearance from the synapse in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and the target of psychostimulant and neurotoxic drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, and MPTP. Consequently, the gene for DAT (SLC6A3) has been the focus of many population-based case-control association studies using(More)
Africa is inferred to be the continent of origin for all modern human populations, but the details of human prehistory and evolution in Africa remain largely obscure owing to the complex histories of hundreds of distinct populations. We present data for more than 580,000 SNPs for several hunter-gatherer populations: the Hadza and Sandawe of Tanzania, and(More)