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A sample of 253 children of alcoholics (COAs) and 237 children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs) were compared on alcohol and drug use, psychopathology, cognitive ability, and personality. COAs reported more alcohol and drug problems, stronger alcohol expectancies, higher levels of behavioral undercontrol and neuroticism, and more psychiatric distress in relation(More)
Errors in timed choice tasks typically produce an error-related negativity (ERN) in the event-related potential (ERP). The error specificity of the ERN has been challenged by studies showing a correct response negativity (CRN). Forty-five participants engaged in a flanker task in which both compatibility between flankers and target and the probability of(More)
This paper presents a review and a model of the development of addictive behaviors in (human) adolescents, with a focus on alcohol. The model proposes that addictive behaviors develop as the result of an imbalance between two systems: an appetitive, approach-oriented system that becomes sensitized with repeated alcohol use and a regulatory executive system(More)
There are well-established links between impulsivity and alcohol use in humans and other model organisms; however, the etiological nature of these associations remains unclear. This is likely due, in part, to the heterogeneous nature of the construct of impulsivity. Many different measures of impulsivity have been employed in human studies, using both(More)
We applied different diagnostic rules for diagnosing personality disorders to the NESARC epidemiological study of over 40,000 individuals. Specifically, unlike previous NESARC publications, we required that each personality disorder criterion be associated with significant distress or impairment in order to be counted toward a personality disorder (PD)(More)
The empirical literature on the comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is reviewed. BPD-SUD comorbidity data obtained from studies published from 1987 to 1997 document the frequent co-occurrence of these diagnoses. Methodological issues and theoretical models for understanding this co-occurrence are(More)
Pathological alcohol use is a complex and costly problem. This chapter focuses on recent developments in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. Literature is reviewed from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, personality, neuropsychology, parenting, and social influences. In addition, theoretical models that describe pathways to the development of alcohol(More)
The relationship between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and Axis I disorders was evaluated in a nonclinical sample of 468 young adults. In general, scores on the 5 personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (assessed via the NEO Five-Factor Inventory) distinguished subjects(More)
In previous research adapted versions of the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST) have been employed to assess an individual's father's (F-SMAST) and mother's alcohol abuse (M-SMAST). However, to date psychometric information on these forms has been limited. In order to more broadly assess the psychometric properties of these forms, several(More)
  • K J Sher
  • 1991
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic interest in the psychological characteristics of children of alcoholics (COAs). This chapter provides an overview of this research, focusing on (1) studies suggesting genetic contributions to the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism, (2) studies characterizing the features of an alcoholic rearing environment,(More)