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Errors in timed choice tasks typically produce an error-related negativity (ERN) in the event-related potential (ERP). The error specificity of the ERN has been challenged by studies showing a correct response negativity (CRN). Forty-five participants engaged in a flanker task in which both compatibility between flankers and target and the probability of(More)
This paper presents a review and a model of the development of addictive behaviors in (human) adolescents, with a focus on alcohol. The model proposes that addictive behaviors develop as the result of an imbalance between two systems: an appetitive, approach-oriented system that becomes sensitized with repeated alcohol use and a regulatory executive system(More)
The empirical literature on the comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is reviewed. BPD-SUD comorbidity data obtained from studies published from 1987 to 1997 document the frequent co-occurrence of these diagnoses. Methodological issues and theoretical models for understanding this co-occurrence are(More)
A sample of 253 children of alcoholics (COAs) and 237 children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs) were compared on alcohol and drug use, psychopathology, cognitive ability, and personality. COAs reported more alcohol and drug problems, stronger alcohol expectancies, higher levels of behavioral undercontrol and neuroticism, and more psychiatric distress in relation(More)
There are well-established links between impulsivity and alcohol use in humans and other model organisms; however, the etiological nature of these associations remains unclear. This is likely due, in part, to the heterogeneous nature of the construct of impulsivity. Many different measures of impulsivity have been employed in human studies, using both(More)
The relationship between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and Axis I disorders was evaluated in a nonclinical sample of 468 young adults. In general, scores on the 5 personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (assessed via the NEO Five-Factor Inventory) distinguished subjects(More)
Pathological alcohol use is a complex and costly problem. This chapter focuses on recent developments in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. Literature is reviewed from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, personality, neuropsychology, parenting, and social influences. In addition, theoretical models that describe pathways to the development of alcohol(More)
We discuss the relation between personality factors and two adult forms of disinhibitory psychopathology--alcohol abuse or dependence and antisocial personality disorder. First, we briefly review various methodological issues relevant to research in this area. Next, we review empirical findings relating three broad-band personality trait dimensions(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is found to be diminished in individuals with substance dependence and other types of disinhibitory psychopathology. However, little is known regarding the relation between heavy alcohol use and decision-making skills in young adults. This study therefore investigated whether(More)
Problematic alcohol involvement typically peaks in the early 20s and declines with age. This maturing out of alcohol involvement is usually attributed to individuals attaining adult statuses incompatible with heavy drinking. Nevertheless, little is known about how changes in problematic alcohol use during emerging/early adulthood relate to changes in(More)