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Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that mediates stress, anxiety, and affects serotonergic activity. Studies have shown that CRF has dose-dependent opposing effects on serotonergic activity. This effect has been hypothesized to be differentially mediated by CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors in the dorsal raphé nucleus. We directly tested this(More)
Stress induced by early life social isolation leads to long-lasting alterations in stress responses and serotonergic activity. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurotransmitter that mediates stress responses and alters serotonergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that the stress of early life isolation enhances responses to CRF in adulthood by(More)
Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, the authors investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for 5 days while controls were placed in a novel(More)
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine(More)
Decreases in serotonergic activity in the central nucleus of the amygdala reduce responses to stressors, suggesting an important role for serotonin in this region of the amygdala in stress reactivity. However, it is not known whether exposure to stressors actually increases serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala. The current experiment(More)
The neurotransmitters serotonin and corticotrophin-releasing factor are thought to play an important role in fear and anxiety behaviors. This study aimed to determine the relationship between corticotrophin-releasing factor-evoked changes in serotonin levels within discrete regions of the limbic system and the expression of fear behavior in rats. The(More)
Stressful aggressive interaction stimulates central serotonergic activation in telencephalon as well as brainstem. Social roles can be distinguished by monoamine activity following aggression. Pairs of male lizards, Anolis carolinensis, were allowed to fight and form dominant/subordinate relationships. In micropunched regions of telencephalon, the greatest(More)
Stable social relationships are rearranged over time as resources such as favored territorial positions change. We test the hypotheses that social rank relationships are relatively stable, and although social signals influence aggression and rank, they are not as important as memory of an opponent. In addition, we hypothesize that eyespots, aggression and(More)
Central serotonergic neurons have been implicated in numerous animal behaviors and psychiatric disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their development are not well understood. Here we generated Lmx1b (LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 beta) conditional knock-out mice (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) in which Lmx1b was only deleted in Pet1 (pheochromocytoma 12(More)
We examined the effects of chronic activity wheel running on brain monoamines and latency to escape foot shock after prior exposure to uncontrollable, inescapable foot shock. Individually housed young (approximately 50 day) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to standard cages (sedentary) or cages with activity wheels. After 9-12 weeks,(More)