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BACKGROUND El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC) has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the(More)
To access the relative potency of pesticides to control adult mosquitoes, 19 pesticides with various modes of action were evaluated against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values after topical application, the only pesticide that had higher activity than permethrin was fipronil, with(More)
Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley(More)
Ultra-low-volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only 7 studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. US military personnel currently operating in hot-arid(More)
Treating perimeters with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has shown promise. These barrier treatments are typically evaluated in temperate or tropical areas using abundant vegetation as a substrate. However, there is an emerging interest to develop this technology to protect deployed US troops in extreme desert environments with(More)
A model was developed using 167 carboxamide derivatives, from the United States Department of Agriculture archival database, that were tested as arthropod repellents over the past 60 yr. An artiÞcial neural network employing CODESSA PRO descriptors was used to construct a quantitative structure-activity relationship model for prediction of novel mosquito(More)
2 episodes of surgical debridement during the first month. The lesions began to improve in the second month of medical therapy, when skin grafting was performed. The patient remained well and was discharged after almost 3 months. Medications were continued for a total period of 6 months. The patient has been well for >2 years. P. insidiosum in tissues(More)
Treating perimeters of vegetation with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has potential for U.S. military force health protection. However, for current U.S. military operations in hot-arid environments with little or no vegetation, residual applications on portable artificial materials may be a viable alternative. We evaluated(More)
This spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of Anopheles mosquitos were studied during August 2001 to December 2002 in three villages Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau, in northwestern Thailand in Mae Sot district, Tak Province. The three Karen villages are located about 20 km east of the city of Mae Sot near the Myanmar border.(More)