Kenneth J. Linthicum

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A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites(More)
All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with satellite normalized difference vegetation index data, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks(More)
During a 13-month study on the ecology of malaria vectors in five villages in southern Thailand, Anopheles specimens collected on human-bait, bovid-bait, and in light traps were tested for the presence of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasmodium vivax antigen was detected in seven specimens(More)
Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Because little is known about the potential for most African mosquito species to transmit RVF virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, RVFV), we conducted studies to determine the(More)
El Niño/Southern Oscillation related climate anomalies were analyzed by using a combination of satellite measurements of elevated sea-surface temperatures and subsequent elevated rainfall and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index data. A Rift Valley fever (RVF) risk mapping model using these climate data predicted areas where outbreaks of(More)
Epidemics of chikungunya fever, an Aedes spp.-borne viral disease, affected hundreds of thousands of people in western Indian Ocean islands and India during 2005-2006. The initial outbreaks occurred in coastal Kenya (Lamu, then Mombasa) in 2004. We investigated eco-climatic conditions associated with chikungunya fever emergence along coastal Kenya using(More)
Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and regional elevated sea surface temperatures, elevated(More)
Epizootic Rift Valley fever (RVF) has occurred in Kenya four times over the last 30 years. Widespread, frequent, and persistent rainfall has been a feature of these epizootic periods. A composite statistic, based upon measurements of these rainfall characteristics, is positive during periods of epizootic Rift Valley fever. The heavy rainfall raises the(More)
In addition to heavily infecting the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes, dengue viruses produce a significant infection of the nervous system, involving the brain, Johnston's organ, compound eye, and thoracic and abdominal ganglion. To determine if dengue infection affects feeding behavior of Ae. aegypti we measured feeding times, counted the(More)
During August and September 1988, we collected adult mosquitoes from 14 locations in the Senegal River basin to search for evidence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) viral activity one year after the 1987 outbreak, which occurred along the Senegal-Mauritania border. More than 62,000 specimens representing 18 species in seven genera were collected with carbon(More)