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Although the progressive reduction in accommodative amplitude with increased age is well documented, little is known about several other aspects of static or steady-state accommodation to provide a comprehensive assessment of changes related to age and presbyopia. Static components of accommodation (tonic accommodation, depth-of-focus, slope of the(More)
Earlier evidence suggests qualitatively that at least two control modes may mediate a single vergence response. Thus, in a vergence response to step disparity, the transient component drives the initial fast dynamic portion of the response, while the sustained component maintains the latter slower portion of the response. The authors extended this(More)
The dynamic characteristics of horizontal convergence and divergence eye movement responses to symmetric stimuli were examined. Binocular eye movements were recorded in five, visually normal adult subjects using the infrared reflection technique for symmetric convergent and divergent blur-free, disparity-only, step stimuli of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 deg. The(More)
BACKGROUND For nearly 75 years, optometric vision therapy has been an important mode of therapy for both children and adults who manifested a range of nonstrabismic accommodative and vergence disorders. METHODS In this article, the scientific basis for, and efficacy of, optometric vision therapy in such patients will be discussed. Using bio-engineering(More)
Horizontal eye position was monitored using a photoelectric method during monocular and binocular fixation in four patients having amblyopia without strabismus, thirteen patients having constant strabismus with amblyopia, and five patients having intermittent strabismus. Four abnormalities of fixation were found: increased drift, saccadic intrusions,(More)
Voluntary and reflex accommodation were measured monocularly in five normal subjects using a dynamic infrared optometer. Comparison of the peak velocity/amplitude relation (i.e., "main sequence") showed complete overlapping of the response distributions, suggesting similarity of motoneuronal controller signals for voluntary and reflex accommodation.(More)
The depth-of-focus, or the perceptual tolerance of the human eye to retinal defocus, is important to and imbedded in many aspects of clinical refraction and physiological optics. Although the depth-of-focus is a common concept in classical optics, there is relatively little detailed discussion of its implications as related to normal vision function and to(More)
While retinal defocus is believed to be myopigenic in nature, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. We recently constructed a theory of refractive error development to investigate its fundamental properties. Our Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory is based on the principle that the change in retinal-defocus magnitude during an increment of(More)
The literature on nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) is reviewed, with NITM being defined as the short-term myopic far point shift immediately following a sustained near visual task. A majority of these investigations demonstrated the presence of NITM for a variety of test parameters, e.g., visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and far point. Overall,(More)