Kenneth J. Ciuffreda

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Earlier evidence suggests qualitatively that at least two control modes may mediate a single vergence response. Thus, in a vergence response to step disparity, the transient component drives the initial fast dynamic portion of the response, while the sustained component maintains the latter slower portion of the response. The authors extended this(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in a sample of ambulatory outpatients who have acquired brain injury (ABI), either traumatic brain injury (TBI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), with associated vision symptoms. METHODS Medical records of 220 individuals with either(More)
The dynamic characteristics of horizontal convergence and divergence eye movement responses to symmetric stimuli were examined. Binocular eye movements were recorded in five, visually normal adult subjects using the infrared reflection technique for symmetric convergent and divergent blur-free, disparity-only, step stimuli of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 deg. The(More)
BACKGROUND For nearly 75 years, optometric vision therapy has been an important mode of therapy for both children and adults who manifested a range of nonstrabismic accommodative and vergence disorders. METHODS In this article, the scientific basis for, and efficacy of, optometric vision therapy in such patients will be discussed. Using bio-engineering(More)
The depth-of-focus, or the perceptual tolerance of the human eye to retinal defocus, is important to and imbedded in many aspects of clinical refraction and physiological optics. Although the depth-of-focus is a common concept in classical optics, there is relatively little detailed discussion of its implications as related to normal vision function and to(More)
Voluntary and reflex accommodation were measured monocularly in five normal subjects using a dynamic infrared optometer. Comparison of the peak velocity/amplitude relation (i.e., "main sequence") showed complete overlapping of the response distributions, suggesting similarity of motoneuronal controller signals for voluntary and reflex accommodation.(More)
To determine the influence of target proximity on accommodation and vergence under both open- (OL) and closed-loop (CL) viewing conditions, a static interactive feedback model, which included proximal accommodation (PA) and proximal vergence (PV) inputs, was developed and analysed quantitatively. It was based on an earlier static dual-interactive feedback(More)
Horizontal eye position was monitored using a photoelectric method during monocular and binocular fixation in four patients having amblyopia without strabismus, thirteen patients having constant strabismus with amblyopia, and five patients having intermittent strabismus. Four abnormalities of fixation were found: increased drift, saccadic intrusions,(More)