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Soil samples were randomly collected from 422 vegetable gardens in a study area centered in downtown Baltimore, Maryland, and having a radius of 48.28 km (30 miles). The levels of lead, four other metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc), and pH were measured for each location. The application of multi-response permutation procedures, which are compatible(More)
The Fisher transformation of the sample correlation coefficient r (1915, 1921) and two related techniques by Gayen (1951) and Jeyaratnam (1992) are examined for robustness to nonnormality. Monte Carlo analyses compare combinations of sample sizes and population parameters for seven bivariate distributions. The Fisher, Gayen, and Jeyaratnam approaches are(More)
Two distribution-free permutation techniques are described for the analysis of ecological data. These methods are completely data dependent and provide analyses for the commonly-encountered completely-randomized and randomized-block designs in a multivariate framework. Euclidean distance forms the basis of both techniques, providing consistency with the(More)
The simple pathoanatomic concept that a narrowed spinal canal causes compression of the enclosed cord, leading to local tissue ischemia, injury, and neurological impairment, fails to explain the entire spectrum of clinical findings observed in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A growing body of evidence indicates that spondylotic narrowing of the spinal(More)
The results of a simulation study of multiple regression prediction models for meteorological forecasting are reported. The effects of sample size, amount, and severity of nonrepresentative data in the population, inclusion of noninformative predictors, and least (sum of) absolute deviations (LAD) and least (sum of) squared deviations (LSD) regression(More)
1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the(More)
A FORTRAN program is provided for testing linear trend and homogeneity in proportions. Trend is evaluated by the Cochran-Armitage method and homogeneity is tested by an overall X2 test as well by multiple pairwise comparisons by the Fisher-Irwin exact method. The program should be easy to implement on any size of computer with a FORTRAN compiler.
This study analyzes pre-Katrina variation in aggregate student performance and children's blood lead (BPb) in 117 elementary school districts in metropolitan New Orleans. Fourth grade student achievement on Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) tests were analyzed as a function of BPb for children 1-6 years old within school districts, controlling(More)
Five procedures to calculate the probability of weighted kappa with multiple raters under the null hypothesis of independence are described and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, generality, and limitations. The five procedures are (1) exact variance, (2) resampling contingency, (3) intraclass correlation, (4) randomized block, and (5) resampling(More)