Kenneth J. Achola

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Morphine 0.125 mg kg-1 was administered i.v. to 11 normal subjects and nine patients with chronic renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis. Plasma morphine concentrations were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Although there was considerable individual variation in both groups, mean plasma concentrations of morphine were(More)
The catecholamine and cardiovascular responses to laryngoscopy alone have been compared with those following laryngoscopy and intubation in 24 patients allocated randomly to each group. Following induction with fentanyl and thiopentone, atracurium was administered and artificial ventilation undertaken via a face mask for 2 min with 67% nitrous oxide in(More)
This study was designed to assess the value of measurement of plasma catecholamine concentrations as an objective index of anxiety. A preliminary study was undertaken on 11 healthy volunteers (medically qualified), to determine if venous cannulation per se produced any change in plasma catecholamine concentrations. There were no changes in plasma(More)
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively(More)
The effects of alfentanil (given during induction of anaesthesia) on the haemodynamic and catecholamine responses to tracheal intubation were studied in 44 adult patients who received alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 or 40 micrograms kg-1, or saline placebo. Alfentanil 10 micrograms kg-1 and 40 micrograms kg-1 prevented any increase in heart rate and arterial(More)
Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were measured in 24 patients during the induction of anaesthesia and the subsequent tracheal intubation. The patients received either suxamethonium 1 mg kg-1 or pancuronium 0.1 mg kg-1 to facilitate tracheal intubation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased in both groups following laryngoscopy and(More)
The catecholamine and cardiovascular responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation have been studied in 30 patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery, allocated randomly to one of three groups: group 1 received 4% lignocaine 160 mg using a Forrester Spray; group 2 received 4% lignocaine 160 mg by "Laryng-o-jet"; group 3 received an equal volume(More)
The catecholamine and cardiovascular responses to intubation were investigated during halothane anaesthesia. Thirty patients were allocated randomly to two groups. Following induction of anaesthesia and muscle relaxation, group 1 was ventilated with 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen before intubation; group 2 received 1% halothane in addition. After intubation,(More)
Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 12 patients who had bilateral bat-ear surgery following infiltration of each ear with 2 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:100,000. Venous blood samples were withdrawn before and at set intervals after infiltration. Plasma adrenaline concentration increased from 0.8 pmol/ml to a peak of 2.2 pmol/ml at 2(More)
Plasma catecholamine concentrations have been measured in nine patients undergoing rhinoplasty following infiltration to the facial area of 21 ml of 0.5% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000 and in seven patients undergoing brachial plexus blockade with 40 ml of 0.5% lignocaine, 0.25% bupivacaine and adrenaline 1:200,000. In the rhinoplasty group there was(More)