Kenneth G. Macleod

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The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary approximately 65.5 million years ago marks one of the three largest mass extinctions in the past 500 million years. The extinction event coincided with a large asteroid impact at Chicxulub, Mexico, and occurred within the time of Deccan flood basalt volcanism in India. Here, we synthesize records of the global stratigraphy(More)
The modulating effects of the orally active epidermal growth factor receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839 ("Iressa") on cell growth and signalling were evaluated in four ovarian cancer cell lines (PE01, PE04, SKOV-3, OVCAR-5) that express the epidermal growth factor receptor, and in A2780, which is epidermal growth factor receptor-negative.(More)
BRAF and MEK inhibitors are effective in BRAF mutant melanoma, but most patients eventually relapse with acquired resistance, and others present intrinsic resistance to these drugs. Resistance is often mediated by pathway reactivation through receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/SRC-family kinase (SFK) signaling or mutant NRAS, which drive paradoxical(More)
The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76)(More)
5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) is a nucleoside analogue with cytotoxic and DNA demethylating effects. Here we show that 5-aza-dC induces the proteasomal degradation of free (non-chromatin bound) DNMT1 through a mechanism which is dependent on DNA synthesis and the targeting of incorporated 5-aza-dC residues by DNMT1 itself. Thus, 5-aza-dC induces Dnmt1(More)
Hormone-dependent estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells may adapt to low estrogen environments such as produced by aromatase inhibitors. In many instances, cells become insensitive to the effects of estrogen but may still retain dependence on ER. We have investigated the expression, function, and activation of ERa in two endocrine-resistant(More)
A bioorthogonal organometallic reaction is a biocompatible transformation undergone by a synthetic material exclusively through the mediation of a non-biotic metal source; a selective process used to label biomolecules and activate probes in biological environs. Here we report the in vitro bioorthogonal generation of 5-fluorouracil from a biologically inert(More)
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) may be induced by estrogen in estrogen responsive systems and can contribute to the growth-modulatory effects of this hormone. To test whether TGFalpha contributes to estrogen-regulated growth in ovarian cancers, we have compared the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and TGFalpha in a range of ovarian carcinoma(More)
Marine and continental records show an abrupt negative shift in carbon isotope values at ∼55.8 Myr ago. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is consistent with the release of a massive amount of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and was associated with a dramatic rise in global temperatures termed the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM).(More)
tyrosine kinases are mediators of growth factor-induced cell proliferation in many cancers, and the type I receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK-I) family of receptors have particularly important roles in ovarian cancer (Simpson et al, 1995). The first identified member of this family, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (c-erbB-1), is a transmembrane(More)