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We evaluated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in human odor by using headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the extraction, separation, and analysis of the collected samples. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace above axillary sweat samples collected from different individuals showed the(More)
This article reviews the use of dogs as chemical detectors, and the scientific foundation and available information on the reliability of explosive detector dogs, including a comparison with analytical instrumental techniques. Compositions of common military and industrial explosives are described, including relative vapor pressures of common explosives and(More)
Human scent evidence is utilized as an investigative tool through canine scent discriminations based on the premise that human scent is an individualizing characteristic. This study describes the development of what is effectively a human scent barcode consisting of the relative ratios of an individual's "primary odor" compounds utilized to determine a(More)
In recent years, interest has increased regarding the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for metabolic profiling, human scent identification of the living and deceased, and diagnostic potentials for certain diseases that are known for its association with distinct odor. In this study, a method has been developed that is capable of sampling,(More)
In this study it is demonstrated that human odor collected from items recovered at a post-blast scene can be evaluated using human scent specific canine teams to locate and identify individuals who have been in contact with the improvised explosive device (IED) components and/or the delivery vehicle. The purpose of the experiments presented here was to(More)
Despite the recent surge in the publication of novel instrumental sensors for explosives detection, canines are still widely regarded as one of the most effective real-time field method of explosives detection. In the work presented, headspace analysis is performed by solid phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas(More)
The importance of determining the time since death is crucial to criminal, civil and forensic cases. A technique exploiting the degradation of a protein, cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was investigated. Cardiac Troponin I is a basic regulatory protein found as part of a ternary complex responsible for calcium dependent(More)
This paper describes the use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography to identify the signature odors that law enforcement-certified detector dogs alert to when searching for drugs, explosives, and humans. Background information is provided on the many types of detector dog available and specific samples highlighted(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between antemortem (AM) and postmortem (PM) morphine and codeine concentrations in whole blood. In addition, the effects of antemortem to death interval as well as the postmortem interval were considered during the interpretive process. The cases of seven human subjects are presented here with an(More)
Human remains detection canines are used in locating deceased humans in diverse scenarios and environments based on odor produced during the decay process of the human body. It has been established that human remains detection canines are capable of locating human remains specifically, as opposed to living humans or animal remains, thus suggesting a(More)