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Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers (BC) are heterogeneous with regard to their clinical behavior and response to therapies. The ER is currently the best predictor of response to the anti-estrogen agent tamoxifen, yet up to 30–40% of ER+BC will relapse despite tamoxifen treatment. New prognostic biomarkers and further biological understanding of(More)
Tumor grade is an established indicator of breast cancer outcome, although considerable heterogeneity exists even within-grade. Around 25% of grade III invasive ductal breast carcinomas are associated with a "basal" phenotype, and these tumors are reported to be a distinct subgroup. We have investigated whether this group of breast cancers has a(More)
Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations are predominately of basal-like type, suggesting that BRCA1 dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic basal-like cancers.(More)
Cytokeratin (CK) 14, one of several markers expressed in normal myoepithelial/basal cells, is also expressed in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Previous studies have suggested that expression of such 'basal' markers predicts different biological behaviour, with more frequent lung and brain metastases and poorer prognosis than other carcinomas. We(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of Paget disease by mastectomy has been challenged recently in favor of breast-conserving techniques. A large series of patients treated with mastectomy has been reviewed to assess the feasibility of less radical surgery. METHODS The cases of 70 women with a clinical diagnosis of Paget disease were reviewed. The type, grade,(More)
Many studies have investigated the relationship between the E-cadherin/catenin axis and breast cancer biology and yet, unlike the studies in other tumour systems, which have shown a relationship between down-regulation and poor survival, no clear association has emerged in breast. Since accumulating evidence suggests that ductal carcinoma of no special type(More)
BAG-1 (BCL-2 athanogene-1), a multifunctional protein which associates with steroid hormone receptors (including the oestrogen receptor) and the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein, regulates steroid hormone-dependent transcription and apoptosis. Direct interaction with 70 kD heat-shock proteins, HSC70 and HSP70, may mediate the diverse functions of BAG-1.(More)
BACKGROUND Lymph node metastasis is the oldest and most reliable prognostic indicator in breast carcinoma. In the absence of tumor metastasis, draining lymph nodes can undergo hyperplasia, resulting in increases in the number and size of detectable lymph nodes. The prognostic value of this process has never been established. Lymph node negative breast(More)
The significance of occult metastases in axillary lymph nodes in patients with carcinoma of the breast is controversial. Additional sections were cut from the axillary lymph nodes of 477 women with invasive carcinoma of the breast, in whom no metastases were seen on initial assessment of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the nodes. One section was(More)
Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative(More)