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Exposures to carcinogens present in the diet, in cigarette smoke, or in the environment have been associated with increased risk of bladder and colorectal cancer. The aromatic amines and their metabolites, a class of carcinogen implicated in these exposures, can be N- or O-acetylated by the NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes. Acetylation may result in activation to(More)
INTRODUCTION We investigated placental transfer and neurobehavioural effects in neonates exposed to citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine or sertraline (SSRI's), or to venlafaxine (an SNRI). METHODS Women receiving antidepressants during pregnancy and their neonates were studied. Cord and maternal drug concentrations were measured(More)
OBJECTIVE This study characterized infant drug doses and breast-milk-to-plasma area-under-the-curve ratios for olanzapine and determined plasma concentrations and effects of this drug on breast-feeding infants. METHOD Seven mother-infant nursing pairs were studied. Olanzapine was measured in plasma and milk with high-performance liquid chromatography over(More)
In order to determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of chloroquine (CQ) and its active metabolite, desethylchloroquine (DECQ), when administered as intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, 30 Papua New Guinean women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and 30 age-matched nonpregnant women were administered three daily(More)
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that aromatic amines (and nitroaromatic hydrocarbons) may be carcinogenic for human pancreas. Pancreatic tissues from 29 organ donors (13 smokers, 16 non-smokers) were examined for their ability to metabolize aromatic amines and other carcinogens. Microsomes showed no activity for cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2-dependent(More)
Recent studies have suggested that morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) may antagonize the analgesic effects of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). To investigate this hypothesis, steady-state concentrations of morphine, M6G and M3G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 11 patients receiving chronic morphine therapy (9 orally and 2(More)
Sulfamethazine acetylation phenotype was determined in 49 patients with cancer of the colon or rectum, 41 old, and 45 young control subjects. Metabolic clearance of sulfamethazine, plasma ratio of Af-acetylsulfa-methazine:/V-acetylsulfamethazine plus sulfamethazine and urinary ratio of A/-acetyIsulfamethazine:Ar-acetylsulfamethazine plus sulfamethazine were(More)
Bidirectional transport of four novel antimalarial compounds was determined using Caco-2 cell monolayers. P glycoprotein-mediated efflux was greatest for pyronaridine (5 to 20 microM) and low for naphthoquine (5 microM). With 20 microM naphthoquine, net efflux was blocked, suggesting saturation of the transporter. Piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin were not(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix effects in HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)1 can cause differences in the ionization of an internal standard (IS) compared with the analyte of interest. Unless sample cleanup or chromatographic conditions eliminate or minimize ion suppression or enhancement, variability in interpatient matrices may(More)