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BACKGROUND In a phase 1 dose-escalation study, combined inhibition of T-cell checkpoint pathways by nivolumab and ipilimumab was associated with a high rate of objective response, including complete responses, among patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS In this double-blind study involving 142 patients with metastatic melanoma who had not previously(More)
BACKGROUND Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, can result in durable responses in patients with melanoma who have progressed after ipilimumab and BRAF inhibitors. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab compared with investigator's choice of chemotherapy (ICC) as a second-line or later-line treatment in patients(More)
Although genome-wide hypomethylation is a hallmark of many cancers, roles for active DNA demethylation during tumorigenesis are unknown. Here, loss of the APC tumor suppressor gene causes upregulation of a DNA demethylase system and the concomitant hypomethylation of key intestinal cell fating genes. Notably, this hypomethylation maintained zebrafish(More)
OBJECT BRAF inhibitors improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Brain metastases are common, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used, resulting in excellent local control. Because BRAF inhibitors are associated with intracranial responses, the authors hypothesized that BRAF inhibitors would improve local(More)
We compared acute toxicity, drug exposure, in-hospital mortality, and inpatient length of stay between two currently recommended dosing protocols (from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines) of high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. Patients with metastatic melanoma who received high-dose IL-2(More)
BACKGROUND National guidelines support both surgical and radiotherapy (RT) as initial treatment options for early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). There remains limited data evaluating the survival outcomes of RT and the current practice patterns for these lesions. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of 8274 patients in the(More)
BACKGROUND Results from phase 2 and 3 trials in patients with advanced melanoma have shown significant improvements in the proportion of patients achieving an objective response and prolonged progression-free survival with the combination of nivolumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) plus ipilimumab (an anti-CTLA-4 antibody) compared with ipilimumab alone. We report(More)
β-Catenin has a dual function in cells: fortifying cadherin-based adhesion at the plasma membrane and activating transcription in the nucleus. We found that in melanoma cells, WNT5A stimulated the disruption of N-cadherin and β-catenin complexes by activating the guanosine triphosphatase adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6). Binding of WNT5A(More)
The role of Snm1, Rev3 and Rad51 in S-phase after cisplatin (CDDP) DNA treatment has been examined. When isogenic deletion mutants snm1 delta, rev3 delta and rad51 delta were arrested in G1 and treated with doses of CDDP causing significant lethality (<20% survival in the mutant strains), they progressed through S-phase with normal kinetics. The mutants(More)
Yeast mutants, snm1 (pso2-1), rev3 (pso1-1), and rad51, which display significant sensitivity to interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) have low relative sensitivity to other DNA damaging agents. SNM1, REV3, and RAD51 were disrupted in the same haploid strain, singly and in combination. The double mutants, snm1 Delta rev3 Delta, snm1 Delta rad51 Delta and rev3 Delta(More)