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OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and impact on mortality of delays in initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy from initial onset of recurrent/persistent hypotension of septic shock. DESIGN A retrospective cohort study performed between July 1989 and June 2004. SETTING Fourteen intensive care units (four medical, four surgical, six mixed(More)
Major pulmonary embolism (PE) results whenever the combination of embolism size and underlying cardiopulmonary status interact to produce hemodynamic instability. Physical findings and standard data crudely estimate the severity of the embolic event in patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease (CPD) but are unreliable indicators in patients with prior(More)
INTRODUCTION Dental plaque biofilms are colonized by respiratory pathogens in mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. Thus, improvements in oral hygiene in these patients may prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. The goal of this study was to determine the minimum frequency (once or twice a day) for 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate application(More)
This document was developed through the collaborative efforts of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations. Under the auspices of these societies, a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional task force was convened, incorporating expertise in critical care medicine,(More)
Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with acute renal failure (ARF) have high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly if they have serious comorbid conditions. Several studies indicate that in rats with ARF caused by ischemia or certain nephrotoxins, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) enhances the recovery of renal function and suppresses protein catabolism. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of EHR technology on the work and workflow of ICU physicians and compare time spent by ICU resident and attending physicians on various tasks before and after EHR implementation. DESIGN EHR technology with electronic order management (CPOE, medication administration and pharmacy system) and physician documentation was(More)
This paper describes the development of a job task analysis tool for observing and recording physician tasks in the ICU. Real-time direct observations were conducted by outside observers using a computerized data collection tool developed to document the tasks performed by ICU physicians. The aim of the analysis was to quantify the tasks of the physicians,(More)