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- Robert L. Cook, Kenneth E. Torrance
- SIGGRAPH
- 1981

This paper presents a new reflectance model for rendering computer synthesized images. The model accounts for the relative brightness of different materials and light sources in the same scene. It describes the directional distribution of the reflected light and a color shift that occurs as the reflectance changes with incidence angle. The paper presents a… (More)

- Eric P. Lafortune, Sing-Choong Foo, Kenneth E. Torrance, Donald P. Greenberg
- SIGGRAPH
- 1997

We introduce a new class of primitive functions with non-linear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energy-conserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as off-specular reflection, increasing reflectance and retro-reflection. We demonstrate this by fitting sums of primitive functions… (More)

- Bruce Walter, Steve Marschner, Hongsong Li, Kenneth E. Torrance
- Rendering Techniques
- 2007

Microfacet models have proven very successful for modeling light reflection from rough surfaces. In this paper we review microfacet theory and demonstrate how it can be extended to simulate transmission through rough surfaces such as etched glass. We compare the resulting transmission model to measured data from several real surfaces and discuss appropriate… (More)

- Cindy M. Goral, Kenneth E. Torrance, Donald P. Greenberg, Bennett Battaile
- SIGGRAPH
- 1984

A method is described which models the interaction of light between diffusely reflecting surfaces. Current light reflection models used in computer graphics do not account for the object-to-object reflection between diffuse surfaces, and thus incorrectly compute the global illumination effects. The new procedure, based on methods used in thermal… (More)

- Steve Marschner, Stephen H. Westin, Eric P. Lafortune, Kenneth E. Torrance, Donald P. Greenberg
- Rendering Techniques
- 1999

We present a new image-based process for measuring the bidirectional reflectance of homogeneous surfaces rapidly, completely, and accurately. For simple sample shapes (spheres and cylinders) the method requires only a digital camera and a stable light source. Adding a 3D scanner allows a wide class of curved near-convex objects to be measured. With… (More)

- Xiao D. He, Kenneth E. Torrance, François X. Sillion, Donald P. Greenberg
- SIGGRAPH
- 1991

A new general reflectance model for computer graphics is presented. The model is based on physical optics and describes specular, directional diffuse, and uniform diffuse reflection by a surface. The reflected light pattern depends on wavelength, incidence angle, two surface roughness parameters, and surface refractive index. The formulation is self… (More)

- Stephen H. Westin, James Arvo, Kenneth E. Torrance
- SIGGRAPH
- 1992

We describe a physically-based Monte Carlo technique for approximating bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for a large class of geometries by directly simulating optical scattering. The technique is more general than previous analytical models: it removes most restrictions on surface microgeometry. Three main points are described: a new… (More)

- James Arvo, Kenneth E. Torrance, Brian E. Smits
- SIGGRAPH
- 1994

In this paper we identify sources of error in global illumination algorithms and derive bounds for each distinct category. Errors arise from three sources: inaccuracies in the boundary data, discretization, and computation. Boundary data consists of surface geometry, reflectance functions, and emission functions, all of which may be perturbed by errors in… (More)

- Holly E. Rushmeier, Kenneth E. Torrance
- SIGGRAPH
- 1987

The zonal method for calculating radiative transfer in the presence of a participating medium is applied to the generation of realistic synthetic images. The method generalizes the radiosity method and allows for emission, scattering, and absorption by a participating medium. The zonal method accounts for volume/surface interactions which have not been… (More)

- S R Marschner, S H Westin, E P Lafortune, K E Torrance
- Applied optics
- 2000

We present a new image-based process for measuring a surface's bidirectional reflectance rapidly, completely, and accurately. Requiring only two cameras, a light source, and a test sample of known shape, our method generates densely spaced samples covering a large domain of illumination and reflection directions. We verified our measurements both by tests… (More)