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We introduce a new class of primitive functions with non-linear parameters for representing light reflectance functions. The functions are reciprocal, energy-conserving and expressive. They can capture important phenomena such as off-specular reflection, increasing re-flectance and retro-reflection. We demonstrate this by fitting sums of primitive functions(More)
We present a new image-based process for measuring the bidirectional reflectance of homogeneous surfaces rapidly, completely, and accurately. For simple sample shapes (spheres and cylinders) the method requires only a digital camera and a stable light source. Adding a 3D scanner allows a wide class of curved near-convex objects to be measured. With(More)
A method is described which models the interaction of light between diffusely reflecting surfaces. Current light reflection models used in computer graphics do not account for the object-to-object reflection between diffuse surfaces, and thus incorrectly compute the global illumination effects. The new procedure, based on methods used in thermal(More)
We describe a physically-based Monte Carlo technique for approximating bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for a large class of geometries by directly simulating optical scattering. The technique is more general than previous analytical models: it removes most restrictions on surface microgeometry. Three main points are described: a new(More)
Our goal is to develop physically based lighting models and perceptually based rendering procedures for computer graphics that will produce synthetic images that are visually and measurably indistinguishable from real-world images. Fidelity of the physical simulation is of primary concern. Our research framework is subdivided into three subsections: the(More)
The radiosity method for computing the interreflection of light within diffuse environments is described. The development of the method for realistic image synthesis over the past three years is outlined. A short discussion of the underlying theory and implementation is followed by a real life example which illustrates the power and accuracy of the(More)
A new general reflectance model for computer graphics is presented. The model is based on physical optics and describes specular, directional diffuse, and uniform diffuse reflection by a surface. The reflected light pattern depends on wavelength, incidence angle, two surface roughness parameters, and surface refractive index. The formulation is self(More)
The zonal method for calculating radiative transfer in the presence of a participating medium is applied to the generation of realistic synthetic images. The method generalizes the radiosity method and allows for emission, scattering, and absorption by a participating medium. The zonal method accounts for volume/surface interactions which have not been(More)
Accurate simulation of light propagation within an environment and perceptually based imaging techniques are necessary for the creation of realistic images. A physical experiment that verifies the simulation of reflected light intensities for diffuse environments was conducted. Measurements of radiant energy flux densities are compared with predictions(More)