Kenneth D. Winkel

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OBJECTIVE To examine antivenom use, premedication, early adverse reactions and patient outcomes after snake bite in rural Papua New Guinea. DESIGN Retrospective chart analysis of all admissions for snake bite with documented antivenom use at 11 rural health facilities from January 1994 to June 2004. No formal protocol was followed and there was no attempt(More)
The Urodacidae scorpions are the most widely distributed of the four families in Australia and represent half of the species in the continent, yet their venoms remain largely unstudied. This communication reports the first results of a proteome analysis of the venom of the scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi performed by mass fingerprinting, after high performance(More)
UyCT peptides are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of the Australian scorpion. The activity of the UyCT peptides against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and red blood cells was determined. The membrane interactions of these peptides were evaluated by dye release (DR) of the fluorophore calcein from liposomes and isothermal titration(More)
Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting,(More)
Clinicians have for a long time witnessed the tragedy of injury, disability, and death from snake bite that is a daily occurrence in many parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. To many people living in these regions, including some of the world’s poorest communities, snake bite is an ever present occupational risk and environmental hazard, an additional(More)
The ubiquity of venom variation in snakes poses special problems for the manufacture of antivenom and has undermined the commercial attractiveness of this class of therapeutic agent. In particular, it has been amply documented that both interspecific and intraspecific variation in venom composition can affect the neutralisation capacity of antivenoms. This(More)
The clinical signs, biochemical changes and serum and urine venom concentrations for a series of nine cases of Red bellied black snake [RBBS] (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in eight dogs seen in a regional Australian veterinary hospital are described. Although the resulting envenomation syndrome was, in most cases, relatively mild and responded(More)
If snake antivenoms are considered orphan drugs, then jellyfish antivenoms are the poorest of the orphans. Despite the diversity, ubiquity and toxicity of the venomous cnidarians, only a single antivenom is available for jellyfish stings worldwide. That antivenom, an ovine whole IgG product, is directed against the ‘box’ jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and is(More)
The Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK) is of major medical importance in Australia, yet it has never been rigorously characterised in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, especially when it comes to reports of false-negative and false-positive results. This study investigates reactions and cross-reactions of five venoms the SVDK is directed against and a(More)