Kenneth D. Ward

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OBJECTIVE Previous research has produced mixed results pertaining to the association between hostility and insulin resistance. These inconsistent findings may be the result of a lack of studies examining potential moderators of this relationship and inconsistent measures of insulin resistance and/or hostility. We hypothesized that hostility may interact(More)
BACKGROUND Waterpipe smoking is becoming a global public health problem, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). METHODS We try in this study, which is a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of waterpipe smokers in cafes/restaurants in Aleppo-Syria, to assess the time period for the beginning of this new smoking hype. We(More)
This invesgation examined the impact of hostility and the metabolic syndrome on coronary heart disease (CHD) using prospective data from the Normative Aging Study. Seven hundred seventy-four older, unmedicated men free of cardiovascular disease were included in the study. The total Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) Scale score, anthropometric data, serum lipids,(More)
BACKGROUND To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers) and cafe customers (established smokers) in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. METHODS Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students(More)
BACKGROUND Happy Ending (HE) is an intense 1-year smoking cessation program delivered via the Internet and cell phone. HE consists of more than 400 contacts by email, Web pages, interactive voice response, and short message service technology. HE includes a craving helpline and a relapse prevention system, providing just-in-time therapy. All the components(More)
BACKGROUND Self-rated health (SRH) has been widely used to research health inequalities in developed western societies, but few such studies are available in developing countries. Similar to many Arab societies, little research has been conducted in Syria on the health status of its citizens, particularly in regards to SRH. This Study aims to investigate(More)
BACKGROUND There is a dearth of standardized studies examining exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its relationship to respiratory health among adults in developing countries. METHODS In 2004, the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) conducted a population-based survey using stratified cluster sampling to look at issues related to(More)
Although a number of cocaine use variables are available for use in treatment outcome studies, there is little information on how strongly these variables are related or their relative sensitivity for detecting treatment group differences. Eight continuous and categorical variables of cocaine use obtained at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups, four event(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the comorbidity and correlates of depression in chronic diseases in the community in Aleppo, Syria. This has never been previously investigated in an Arab country. METHOD We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in Aleppo on adults aged 18-65 (N = 2038). We collected data utilizing a structured interview questionnaire.(More)
Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students(More)