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True primates appeared suddenly on all three northern continents during the 100,000-yr-duration Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum at the beginning of the Eocene, approximately 55.5 mya. The simultaneous or nearly simultaneous appearance of euprimates on northern continents has been difficult to understand because the source area, immediate ancestors, and(More)
Macroscelideans (elephant shrews or sengis) are small-bodied (25-540 g), cursorial (running) and saltatorial (jumping), insectivorous and omnivorous placental mammals represented by at least 15 extant African species classified in four genera. Macroscelidea is one of several morphologically diverse but predominantly African placental orders classified in(More)
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the(More)
There is a general inverse relationship between the natural logarithm of tooth area (a body size indicator) of some fossil mammals and paleotemperature during approximately 2.9 million years of the early Eocene in the Bighorn Basin of northwest Wyoming. When mean temperatures became warmer, tooth areas tended to become smaller. During colder times, larger(More)
The oldest euprimates known from India come from the Early Eocene Cambay Formation at Vastan Mine in Gujarat. An Ypresian (early Cuisian) age of approximately 53Ma (based on foraminifera) indicates that these primates were roughly contemporary with, or perhaps predated, the India-Asia collision. Here we present new euprimate fossils from Vastan Mine,(More)
A substantially complete skull and mandible of the primitive adapiform Cantius is reported from the Early Eocene Willwood Formation of Wyoming. The mandible contains an almost complete lower dentition in which the lower incisors are strongly inclined and have spatulate crowns, I(2) is larger than I(1), and the canine is large and projecting. The cranium(More)
A nearly complete skeleton of early Eocene Diacodexis, the oldest known member of the mammalian order Artiodactyla, is described. Its slender, elongate limb elements indicate that Diacodexis was highly cursorial and closer in postcranial adaptations to tragulids and other primitive ruminants than to living or extinct nonruminant artiodactyls. Its skeletal(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside(More)
A recently discovered partial skeleton of the adapid Cantius trigonodus from the early Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, documents substantial new information about the anatomy of the oldest lemuriform primates. It is very similar in all features to its descendant, middle Eocene Notharctus, and both exhibit numerous resemblances to(More)
We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53 Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian(More)