Kenneth D. Finkelstein

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Counterion atmospheres condensed onto charged biopolymers strongly affect their physical properties and biological functions, but have been difficult to quantify experimentally. Here, monovalent and divalent counterion atmospheres around DNA double helices in solution are probed using small-angle x-ray scattering techniques. Modulation of the ion scattering(More)
The competition of monovalent and divalent cations for proximity to negatively charged DNA is of biological importance and can provide strong constraints for theoretical treatments of polyelectrolytes. Resonant x-ray scattering experiments have allowed us to monitor the number and distribution of each cation in a mixed ion cloud around DNA. These(More)
Nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on NiO and CoO show that strong dipole-forbidden d-d excitations appear within the Mott gap at large wave vectors. These dominant excitations are highly anisotropic, and have [001] nodal directions for NiO. Theoretical analyses based on a novel, energy-resolved Wannier function (within the local density(More)
The dynamic response of tetragonal lysozyme crystals to dehydration has been characterized in situ using a combination of X-ray topography, high-resolution diffraction line-shape measurements and conventional crystallographic diffraction. For dehydration from 98% relative humidity (r.h.) to above 89%, mosaicity and diffraction resolution show little change(More)
X-ray diffraction was employed to study the evolution of the charge density wave (CDW) in Cu_{x}TiSe_{2} as a function of copper intercalation in order to clarify the relationship between the CDW and superconductivity. The results show a CDW incommensuration arising at an intercalation value coincident with the onset of superconductivity at around(More)
The mechanisms by which macromolecular impurities degrade the diffraction properties of protein crystals have been investigated using X-ray topography, high-resolution diffraction line shape measurements, crystallographic data collection, chemical analysis, and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Hen egg-white lysozyme crystals grown from(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of probable overactive bladder (OAB) in black, Hispanic, and white women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey of women (aged > or = 18 years) presenting to a private obstetrics and gynecology group practice. The survey consisted of the Overactive Bladder-Validated 8 (OAB-V8) and other questions(More)
Anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) exploits contrast variation methods to highlight the scattering from one elemental component in a multielement sample, such as one ion species in an ion-DNA system. The ASAXS method has been applied to measure ions condensed around short nucleic acid duplexes. This chapter, which briefly describes the origin of(More)
In characterizing ecological risks, considerable consensus building and professional judgments are required to develop conclusions about risk. This is because how to evaluate all the factors that determine ecological risk is not well defined and is subject to interpretation. Here we report on the application of a procedure to weigh the evidence of(More)
Flash-cooling and annealing of macromolecular crystals have been investigated using in situ X-ray imaging, diffraction-peak lineshape measurements and conventional crystallographic diffraction. The dominant mechanisms by which flash-cooling creates disorder are suggested and a fixed-temperature annealing protocol for reducing this disorder is demonstrated(More)