Counterion atmospheres condensed onto charged biopolymers strongly affect their physical properties and biological functions, but have been difficult to quantify experimentally. Here, monovalent and divalent counterion atmospheres around DNA double helices in solution are probed using small-angle x-ray scattering techniques. Modulation of the ion scattering… (More)
The competition of monovalent and divalent cations for proximity to negatively charged DNA is of biological importance and can provide strong constraints for theoretical treatments of polyelectrolytes. Resonant x-ray scattering experiments have allowed us to monitor the number and distribution of each cation in a mixed ion cloud around DNA. These… (More)
There is considerable interest in using superconducting electron linacs with energy recovery as synchrotron radiation sources. Such energy recovery linacs (ERLs) would open new regimes of X-ray science because they are capable of producing ultra-brilliant X-ray beams [>5 x 10(22) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) at 10 keV], maintaining a… (More)
The Energy Recovery LINAC (ERL) being developed at Cornell should be an excellent source for Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) because it will permit long undulators to operate at high efficiency generating unprecedented spectral flux (photons/second/meV) and brilliance. We discuss several advantages of the ERL for IXS experimentation.
We show that the momentum flexibility of inelastic x-ray scattering may be exploited to invert its loss function, allowing real time imaging of density disturbances in a medium. We show the disturbance arising from a point source in liquid water, with a resolution of 41.3 attoseconds (4.13 x 10(-17) s) and 1.27 A (1.27 x 10(-8) cm). This result is used to… (More)
A series of vanadium compounds was studied by K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and K $$\beta $$ β X-ray emission spectroscopies (XES). Qualitative trends within the datasets, as well as comparisons between the XAS and XES data, illustrate the information content of both methods. The complementary nature of the chemical insight highlights the success of this… (More)
Of several dozen galaxies observed spectroscopically that are candidates for having a redshift (z) in excess of seven, only five have had their redshifts confirmed via Lyman α emission, at z = 7.008, 7.045, 7.109, 7.213 and 7.215 (refs 1-4). The small fraction of confirmed galaxies may indicate that the neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium rises… (More)
We present recent test results and discuss design challenges on x-ray optical components for the wiggler sources at CHESS and for the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) source at Cornell. For the existing wiggler sources, a new white-beam collimating mirror has been installed and tested at F-line and some preliminary test results are presented. For the… (More)