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Calcium is an important second messenger in the phospholipase C (PLC) signal transduction pathway. Calcium signaling is involved in many biological processes, including muscle contraction, cellular(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are powerful mucosal adjuvants whose cellular targets and mechanism of action are unknown. There is emerging evidence that dendritic cells (DC) are(More)
Pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclase toxin (AT) are AB enterotoxins produced by Bordetella pertussis. PT is a powerful mucosal adjuvant whose cellular target and mechanism of action are(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent adjuvant that activates dendritic cells (DC) by increasing intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. In vivo and in vitro, very small amounts of CT induce potent adjuvant(More)
DNA encoded adjuvants are well known for increasing the magnitude of cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against vaccine antigens. DNA adjuvants can also tune immune responses directed(More)