Learn More
In the fifteen years since the first edition of The Mathematical Experience there have been many important efforts to enlarge the public understanding of and support for contemporary mathematics. Despite these efforts little if any progress is apparent. Why? First, the effectiveness of many mathematics teachers, including college and university(More)
The protein topology database KnotProt, http://knotprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/, collects information about protein structures with open polypeptide chains forming knots or slipknots. The knotting complexity of the cataloged proteins is presented in the form of a matrix diagram that shows users the knot type of the entire polypeptide chain and of each of its(More)
Previous work on radius of gyration and average crossing number has demonstrated that polymers with fixed topology show a different scaling behavior with respect to these characteristics than polymers with unrestricted topology. Using numerical simulations, we show here that the difference in the scaling behavior between polymers with restricted and(More)
While analyzing all available protein structures for the presence of knots and slipknots, we detected a strict conservation of complex knotting patterns within and between several protein families despite their large sequence divergence. Because protein folding pathways leading to knotted native protein structures are slower and less efficient than those(More)
Polypeptide chains form open knots in many proteins. How these knotted proteins fold and finding the evolutionary advantage provided by these knots are among some of the key questions currently being studied in the protein folding field. The detection and identification of protein knots are substantial challenges. Different methods and many variations of(More)
Using numerical simulations we investigate how overall dimensions of random knots scale with their length. We demonstrate that when closed non-self-avoiding random trajectories are divided into groups consisting of individual knot types, then each such group shows the scaling exponent of approximately 0.588 that is typical for self-avoiding walks. However,(More)
Closed macromolecular chains may form physically knotted conformations whose relative occurrence and spatial measurements provide insight into their properties and the mechanisms acting upon them. Under the assumption of a degree of structural homogeneity, equilateral spatial polygons are a productive context within which to create mathematical models of(More)
The backbones of proteins form linear chains. In the case of some proteins, these chains can be characterized as forming linear open knots. The knot type of the full chain reveals only limited information about the entanglement of the chain since, for example, subchains of an unknotted protein can form knots and subchains of a knotted protein can form(More)
Most proteins, in order to perform their biological function, have to fold to a compact native state. The increasing number of knotted and slipknotted proteins identified suggests that proteins are able to manoeuvre around topological barriers during folding. In the present article, we review the current progress in elucidating the knotting process in(More)