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Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of progressive wasting which has been suggested to be mediated by tumour-necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1 and 6, interferon-gamma and leukaemia-inhibitory factor. It has proved difficult to correlate levels of tumour-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 with cancer cachexia, and the weight loss induced by(More)
Previous studies have suggested that administration of oral eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) will stabilize weight in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine if a combination of EPA with a conventional oral nutritional supplement could produce weight gain in these patients. Twenty patients with unresectable(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Clinical care of patients undergoing colonic surgery differs between hospitals and countries. In addition, there is considerable variation in rates of recovery and length of hospital stay following major abdominal surgery. There is a need to develop a consensus on key elements of perioperative care for inclusion in enhanced recovery(More)
BACKGROUND Weight loss and cachexia are common, reduce tolerance of cancer treatment and the likelihood of response, and independently predict poor outcome. METHODS A group of experts met under the auspices of the European School of Oncology to review the literature and-on the basis of the limited evidence at present-make recommendations for malnutrition(More)
BACKGROUND This review aims to present a consensus for optimal perioperative care in colonic surgery and to provide graded recommendations for items for an evidenced-based enhanced perioperative protocol. METHODS Studies were selected with particular attention paid to meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials and large prospective cohorts. For each item(More)
BACKGROUND This review aims to present a consensus for optimal perioperative care in rectal/pelvic surgery, and to provide graded recommendations for items for an evidenced-based enhanced recovery protocol. METHODS Studies were selected with particular attention paid to meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and large prospective cohorts. For each(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Major liver resection incurs a risk of postoperative liver dysfunction and infection and there is a lack of objective evidence relating residual liver volume to these complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS Liver volumetry was performed on computer models derived from computed tomography (CT) angioportograms of 104 patients with normal(More)
The aim of the study was to assess the total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity level (PAL) in home-living cachectic patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The influence of an energy and protein dense oral supplement either enriched with or without the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Protocols for enhanced recovery provide comprehensive and evidence-based guidelines for best perioperative care. Protocol implementation may reduce complication rates and enhance functional recovery and, as a result of this, also reduce length-of-stay in hospital. There is no comprehensive framework available for pancreaticoduodenectomy.(More)
BACKGROUND Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. METHODS In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss 5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and(More)