Kenneth C. Earhart

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During March 2006-March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age > or = 15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2(More)
OBJECTIVES This research describes the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Uzbekistan. METHODS During 2002 and 2003, blood from HIV-positive patients in Uzbekistan was collected, and part of the proviral pol gene and nearly full-length genomes were sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS Among 142 Uzbek strains, most clustered genetically with the subtype A strain(More)
The current crisis in Afghanistan has resulted in an influx of Western military personnel, peacekeepers, humanitarian workers, and journalists. At the same time, unprecedented numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees have overwhelmed much of the already fragile infrastructure, setting the stage for outbreaks of infectious diseases among both(More)
To develop better estimates of brucellosis incidence, we conducted population-based surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) in Fayoum governorate (population 2347249), Egypt during two summer periods (2002 and 2003). All hospitals and a representative sample of community healthcare providers were included. AFI patients without obvious etiology were(More)
BACKGROUND Highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important poultry viruses in the world. Natural low-virulence NDV strains have been used as vaccines over the past 70 years with proven track records. We have previously developed a reverse genetics system to produce low-virulent NDV vaccine strain(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of 205 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, collected from the CSF of meningitis patients identified between 1998-2003, during sentinel meningitis surveillance in Egypt. METHODS Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated against six antibiotics using disc diffusion and(More)
Eighty-eight adenovirus (Ad) isolates and associated clinical data were collected from walk-in patients with influenza-like illness in Egypt during routine influenza surveillance from 1999 through 2002. Respiratory Ad distributions are geographically variable, and serotype prevalence has not been previously characterized in this region. Serotype identity is(More)
Injecting drug use (IDU), common in global centers of heroin production, confers significant risk for HIV-1 infection. Once introduced into IDU networks, an explosive rise in HIV-1 infection typically occurs, fueled principally by needle sharing. New HIV-1 epidemics in IDUs have occurred in Russia, China, Thailand, Spain, Iran, and in other countries, and(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis A is a major health risk for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Vaccination is a potentially attractive measure to reduce the incidence of hepatitis A among this population, but data on its safety and immunogenicity are incomplete. METHODS Ninety HIV-uninfected adults received an inactivated hepatitis A(More)
Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody(More)