Kenneth C. Earhart

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During March 2006-March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age > or = 15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2(More)
An outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) occurred aboard a U.S. Navy ship in February 1996, despite 95% of the crew's having been appropriately vaccinated. Virus isolated from ill crew members was antigenically distinct from the vaccination strain. With an attack rate of 42%, this outbreak demonstrates the potential for rapid spread of influenza in a confined(More)
Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody(More)
BACKGROUND Highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the two most important poultry viruses in the world. Natural low-virulence NDV strains have been used as vaccines over the past 70 years with proven track records. We have previously developed a reverse genetics system to produce low-virulent NDV vaccine strain(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of 205 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, collected from the CSF of meningitis patients identified between 1998-2003, during sentinel meningitis surveillance in Egypt. METHODS Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated against six antibiotics using disc diffusion and(More)
We analyzed highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans infected in Egypt during 2007-2011. All analyzed viruses evolved from the lineage of subtype H5N1 viruses introduced into Egypt in 2006; we found minimal evidence of reassortment and no exotic introductions. The hemagglutinin genes of the viruses from 2011 formed a(More)
In Egypt, vaccination against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was required of pilgrims departing for the 2009 Hajj. A survey of 551 pilgrims as they returned to Egypt found 542 (98.1% [weighted]) reported receiving the vaccine; 6 (1.0% [weighted]) were infected with influenza virus A (H3N2) but none with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
In June, 2003, Egypt's hospital-based electronic disease surveillance system began to record increased cases of acute febrile illness from governorates in the Nile Delta. In response to a request for assistance from the Egyptian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3) provided(More)
We describe receptive and distributive needle/syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan. In this cross-sectional study, IDUs completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression identified correlates of needle sharing in the last six months. Receptive and distributive sharing in the last six months were(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) awareness among Afghan injecting drug users (IDUs), many of whom initiated injecting as refugees. We explored whether differences in HIV awareness and knowledge exist between Afghan IDUs who were refugees compared to those never having left Afghanistan. METHODS A convenience sample of(More)