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During March 2006-March 2009, a total of 6,355 suspected cases of avian influenza (H5N1) were reported to the Ministry of Health in Egypt. Sixty-three (1%) patients had confirmed infections; 24 (38%) died. Risk factors for death included female sex, age > or = 15 years, and receiving the first dose of oseltamivir >2 days after illness onset. All but 2(More)
To develop better estimates of brucellosis incidence, we conducted population-based surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) in Fayoum governorate (population 2347249), Egypt during two summer periods (2002 and 2003). All hospitals and a representative sample of community healthcare providers were included. AFI patients without obvious etiology were(More)
Three hundred eighteen European cows and 115 buffaloes were vaccinated with locally prepared Smithburn vaccine, of which, 100 cows and 20 buffaloes were pregnant. Twenty-eight cows aborted within 72 days post-vaccination, buffaloes did not abort. Blood samples collected 77 days post-vaccination from aborted cows, 17 pregnant cows, 5 pregnant buffaloes, and(More)
Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of 205 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, collected from the CSF of meningitis patients identified between 1998-2003, during sentinel meningitis surveillance in Egypt. METHODS Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated against six antibiotics using disc diffusion and(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) awareness among Afghan injecting drug users (IDUs), many of whom initiated injecting as refugees. We explored whether differences in HIV awareness and knowledge exist between Afghan IDUs who were refugees compared to those never having left Afghanistan. METHODS A convenience sample of(More)
Injecting drug use (IDU), common in global centers of heroin production, confers significant risk for HIV-1 infection. Once introduced into IDU networks, an explosive rise in HIV-1 infection typically occurs, fueled principally by needle sharing. New HIV-1 epidemics in IDUs have occurred in Russia, China, Thailand, Spain, Iran, and in other countries, and(More)
In December 2006, three human specimens were received that were suspected positive for influenza A(H5N1). The specimens were tested using real time PCR. And the presence of A(H5N1) virus was confirmed in 2 patients (16F and 26M), The NA sequence from A(H5N1) positive specimens collected before and after antiviral therapy revealed a mutation (N294S) (N295S(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of hepatitis among young Egyptian adults with high seroprevalence rates seen in both rural areas of the Nile Delta and in suburban Cairo. Because natural antibodies to HEV have been detected in animals and zoonotic transmission is postulated, we surveyed work horses in Cairo for evidence of HEV exposure and(More)