Kenneth Byrd

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Significant differences exist between human and Macaca fascicularis patterns of mandibular movement during mastication. Macaque patterns display less asymmetry, more uniformity, and limited lateral excursions when compared to humans for mastication of the same food. Different anatomical structures between the two species offer explanations of the different(More)
Optoelectronic analysis of mandibular movement and electromyography (EMG) of masticatory muscles in Cavia porcellus indicate bilateral, unilateral, and gnawing cycles. During bilateral and unilateral cycles, the mandibular tip moves forward, lateral, and down during the lingual phase of the power stroke to bring the teeth into occlusion. EMG activity is(More)
Parafunctional masticatory activity, such as the tooth clenching and grinding that is associated with bruxism, is encountered by clinicians in many disciplines, including dentistry, neurology and psychiatry. Despite this, little is known about the neurological basis for these activities. To identify the brain network engaged in such complex oromotor(More)
Jaw-clenching and tooth-grinding associated with bruxism can contribute to abnormal tooth wear and pain in the masticatory system. Clench and tooth-grinding jaw-movement tasks were evaluated in a block-design fMRI study comparing a dental-control (DC) group with a tooth-grinding (TG) group. Group classification was made prior to imaging based upon(More)
The objective of this study was to define further the role of the trigeminal motor nucleus (TMNu) in the postnatal ontogeny of the mammalian craniofacial skeleton. To that end, 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent stereotaxic surgery at 40 days of age; 21 received small electrolytic lesions to their left-side TMNu (lesioned group) while 21 had TMNu(More)
Unilateral electrolytic lesions were produced in the left trigeminal motor nucleus (TMN) of six guinea pigs at 49 days of age. Masticatory mandibular movement and EMG data were collected prior to lesioning and at 4 and 12 days postlesion. After the animals were killed 60 days postlesion, dissection and maceration revealed muscular atrophy and craniofacial(More)
The jaw movements of 3 subadult guinea pigs were recorded before and after cerebellar ablation with the aid of an optoelectronic tracking system. Despite overall ataxia of the animals' body and limbs, masticatory patterns were essentially normal. The major effects of cerebellar ablation upon Cavia mastication were a statistically significant (P < 0.01)(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; Protirelin) is an endogenous neuropeptide known to have anticonvulsant effects in several seizure models and in intractable epileptic patients. Like most neuropeptides, its duration of action may be limited by a lack of sustained site-specific bioavailability. To attempt to provide long-term delivery, we attached TRH to a(More)