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When a carbon nanotube emitter is operated at high currents (typically above 1 microA per emitter), a small voltage drop ( approximately few volts) along its length or at its contact generates a reverse/canceling electric field that causes a saturation-like deviation from the classical Fowler-Nordheim behavior with respect to the applied electric field. We(More)
The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface using the nanoscale roughness inherent in a vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest together with a thin, conformal hydrophobic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) coating on the surface of the nanotubes. Superhydrophobicity is achieved down to the microscopic level where(More)
It has been claimed that graphene growth on copper by chemical vapor deposition is dominated by crystallization from the surface initially supersaturated with carbon adatoms, which implies that the growth is independent of hydrocarbon addition after the nucleation phase. Here, we present an alternative growth model based on our observations that oppose this(More)
Ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements of high purity and well separated carbon onion samples are reported. The results show that, after purification, absorption features from carbon onions match well with the interstellar UV spectrum. The measurements show that the absorption peak position remains constant at 4.55+/-0.1 microm(-1), and the width(More)
The figure of merit for the electron optical performance of carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron sources is presented. This figure is given by the relation between the reduced brightness and the energy spread in the region of stable emission. It is shown experimentally that a CNT electron source exhibits a highly stable emission process that follows the(More)
To communicate, spacecraft and satellites rely on microwave devices, which at present are based on relatively inefficient thermionic electron sources that require heating and cannot be switched on instantaneously. Here we describe a microwave diode that uses a cold-cathode electron source consisting of carbon nanotubes and that operates at high frequency(More)
The ability to accurately design carbon nanofibre (CN) field emitters with predictable electron emission characteristics will enable their use as electron sources in various applications such as microwave amplifiers, electron microscopy, parallel beam electron lithography and advanced Xray sources. Here, highly uniform CN arrays of controlled diameter,(More)
The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal(More)
Large area uniform nanocrystalline graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition on arbitrary insulating substrates that can survive-1000 0c. The as-synthesized graphene is nanocrystalline with a domain size in the order of-10 nm. The material possesses a transparency and conductivity similar to standard graphene fabricated by exfoliation or catalysis. A(More)