Learn More
The effect of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on cortical electroencephalographic activity was examined in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 4 patients with epilepsy. Evoked potentials were created by time-locking electroencephalography to the onset of electrical stimulation delivered through the lead implanted in the STN of patients who had(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate steering the volume of activated tissue (VTA) with deep brain stimulation (DBS) using a novel high spatial-resolution lead design. METHODS We examined the effect of asymmetric current-injection across the DBS-array on the VTA. These predictions were then evaluated acutely in a non-human primate implanted with the DBS-array, using(More)
The Drosophila Shaker gene on the X chromosome has three sister genes, Shal, Shab, and Shaw, which map to the second and third chromosomes. This extended gene family encodes voltage-gated potassium channels with widely varying kinetics (rate of macroscopic current activation and inactivation) and voltage sensitivity of steady-state inactivation. The(More)
Mutant flies in which the gene coding for the Shaker potassium channel is deleted still have potassium currents similar to those coded by the Shaker gene. This suggests the presence of a family of Shaker-like genes in Drosophila. By using a Shaker complementary DNA probe and low-stringency hybridization, three additional family members have now been(More)
The molecular genetic approach to studying K+ channels has revealed that at least four subfamilies of voltage-gated K+ channels originally discovered in Drosophila are conserved in mice and humans. This conservation of the K+ channel subfamilies Shaker, Shal, Shab, and Shaw suggests that not only the broad outlines of membrane electrical properties but also(More)
We have cloned and expressed a mouse brain cDNA, mShal, that encodes a transient, A-type K+ current. mShal, the vertebrate homolog of the Drosophila Shal gene, defines a distinct subfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels. The Shal deduced proteins are more highly conserved between mouse and Drosophila than other presently known K+ channels. mShal carries a(More)
OBJECTIVES The substantia nigra in the animal model has been implicated in the control of epilepsy. The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) receives afferents from the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which thus may have an effect on the control of epilepsy. There is evidence in the animal model of a direct connection from the cortex to the STN.(More)
PURPOSE To compare the MRI-related heating per unit of specific absorption rate (SAR) profile of a conductive implant between two 1.5-Tesla/64 MHz MR systems using a transmit/receive (t/r) head coil configuration. MATERIALS AND METHODS Deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads were configured within a gel-filled phantom of the human head and torso. Temperature(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins have assumed increasing importance in clinical application. The toxin's light chain component (LC) inhibits synaptic transmission by digesting vesicle-docking proteins without directly altering neuronal health. To study the properties of LC gene expression in the nervous system, an adenoviral vector containing the LC of tetanus toxin(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy has become an essential tool for treating a range of brain disorders. In the resting state, DBS is known to regularize spike activity in and downstream of the stimulated brain target, which in turn has been hypothesized to create informational lesions. Here, we specifically test this hypothesis using repetitive joint(More)