Kenneth Andrew Shackel

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A number of studies have shown a transition from a primarily xylem to a primarily phloem flow of water as fleshy fruits develop, and the current hypothesis to explain this transition, particularly in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, is that the vascular tissue (tracheids) become non-functional as a result of post-veraison berry growth. In most studies,(More)
Water moves through plants under tension and in a thermodynamically metastable state, leaving the nonliving vessels that transport this water vulnerable to blockage by gas embolisms. Failure to reestablish flow in embolized vessels can lead to systemic loss of hydraulic conductivity and ultimately death. Most plants have developed a mechanism to restore(More)
Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well(More)
The pressure microprobe was used to determine whether the turgor pressure in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., variety "Castelmart") pericarp cells changed during fruit ripening. The turgor pressure of cells located 200 to 500 micrometers below the fruit epidermis was uniform within the same tissue (typically +/- 0.02 megapascals), and the highest(More)
During the latter stages of development in fleshy fruit, water flow through the xylem declines markedly and the requirements of transpiration and further expansion are fulfilled primarily by the phloem. We evaluated the hypothesis that cessation of water transport through the xylem results from disruption or occlusion of pedicel and berry xylem conduits(More)
The softening of fleshy fruits, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), during ripening is generally reported to result principally from disassembly of the primary cell wall and middle lamella. However, unsuccessful attempts to prolong fruit firmness by suppressing the expression of a range of wall-modifying proteins in transgenic tomato fruits do not(More)
Vulnerability to cavitation is a key variable defining the limits to drought resistance in woody plants (Kursar et al., 2009). This trait is typically assessed by a vulnerability curve, which can be generated by a range of methods, including dehydration (Sperry et al., 1988), air injection (Cochard et al., 1992), and centrifugation (Alder et al., 1997).(More)
Alfalfa and cotton flowers were pierced with small glass capillaries of an overall size and shape similar to that of Lygus stylets, and injected with small quantities (6 to 100 nL) of solutions that contained Lygus salivary enzymes. Crude and partially purified protein solutions from Lygus heads and isolated salivary glands showed substantial(More)
Measurements of the growth and water relations of expanding grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves have been used to determine the relationship between leaf expansion rate and leaf cell turgor. Direct measurement of turgor on the small (approximately 15 micrometer diameter) epidermal cells over the midvein of expanding grape leaves was made possible by(More)
Connections between xylem vessels represent important links in the vascular network, but the complexity of three-dimensional (3D) organization has been difficult to access. This study describes the development of a custom software package called TANAX (Tomography-derived Automated Network Analysis of Xylem) that automatically extracts vessel dimensions and(More)