Learn More
HIV/SIV infections induce chronic immune activation with remodeling of lymphoid architecture and hypergammaglobulinemia, although the mechanisms leading to such symptoms remain to be fully elucidated. Moreover, lymph nodes have been highlighted as a predilection site for SIV escape in vivo. Following 20 rhesus macaques infected with SIVmac239 as they(More)
Acute SIV infection is characterized by explosive infection of memory CD4 T cells in peripheral and mucosal tissues. Interestingly, relatively few memory CD4 T cells are infected until as late as days 7-8 after challenge. However, by day 10 postinfection, most of the memory CD4 T cells are infected and carry viral DNA. The rapidity with which infection(More)
Unless a costimulatory signal is provided, TCR recognition of Ag bound to the MHC is insufficient to induce optimal T cell proliferation or the production of IL-2. Here we show that the stimulation of CD28, a T cell costimulatory receptor, by a specific Ab increases F-actin contents in T cells. The interaction between T cells and B7-2-transfected Chinese(More)
In pathogenic HIV and SIV infections of humans and rhesus macaques (RMs), preferential depletion of CD4⁺ Th17 cells correlates with mucosal immune dysfunction and disease progression. Interleukin (IL)-21 promotes differentiation of Th17 cells, long-term maintenance of functional CD8⁺ T cells, and differentiation of memory B cells and antibody-secreting(More)
P-glycoprotein, the multidrug resistance protein that actively transports a wide variety of lipophilic substrates out of cancer cells, has recently been described in some normal tissues, including the endothelium of the brain and testes. Here we show that P-glycoprotein is also expressed in ovarian endothelium. In ovarian capillaries, the immunolabeled(More)
Nonhuman primates are extremely valuable animal models for a variety of human diseases. However, it is now becoming evident that these models, although widely used, are still uncharacterized. The major role that nonhuman primate species play in AIDS research as well as in the testing of Ab-based therapeutics requires the full characterization of structure(More)
CD28, a T cell costimulatory receptor, provides a signal that induces both optimal proliferation and the production of IL-2 by TCR-activated T cells. We show that the stimulation of CD28 leads to the activation of p21-activated kinase and MEK kinase 1. The same pathway was also stimulated in T cells treated with the cell-permeable ceramide analogue,(More)
We have previously shown that interleukin-21, a pleiotropic C γ-chain signaling cytokine, induces the expression of the cytotoxic molecules granzyme B (GrB) and perforin in vitro in CD8 T cells and NK cells of chronically HIV infected individuals. In this pilot study, four chronically SIV infected rhesus macaques (RM) in late-stage disease were given two(More)
The detection of viral dynamics and localization in the context of controlled HIV infection remains a challenge and is limited to blood and biopsies. We developed a method to capture total-body simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication using immunoPET (antibody-targeted positron emission tomography). The administration of a poly(ethylene(More)
The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 pathway has been shown to limit cell-mediated effector functions during chronic viral infections impeding clearance of pathogens. As a strategy to reverse this exhaustion and increase T cell polyfunctionality, PD-1 ligands were blocked in vivo using a recombinant macaque PD-1 fused to a(More)