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Three mouse genes, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, which share a similar zinc finger domain with the products of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus and the Caenorhabditis elegans sex-determining gene tra-1 were cloned and characterized. The expression patterns during postimplantation development of the three genes were analyzed by Northern(More)
Induction of the floor plate at the ventral midline of the neural tube is one of the earliest events in the establishment of dorsoventral (d/v) polarity in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The secreted molecule, Sonic hedgehog, has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for this induction. In vertebrates, several downstream components of(More)
The secreted factor Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is both required for and sufficient to induce multiple developmental processes, including ventralization of the CNS, branching morphogenesis of the lungs and anteroposterior patterning of the limbs. Based on analogy to the Drosophila Hh pathway, the multiple GLI transcription factors in vertebrates are likely to both(More)
The vertebrate zinc finger genes of the Gli family are homologs of the Drosophila gene cubitus interruptus. In frog embryos, Gli1 is expressed transiently in the prospective floor plate during gastrulation and in cells lateral to the midline during late gastrula and neurula stages. In contrast, Gli2 and Gli3 are absent from the neural plate midline with(More)
The three mouse Gli genes are putative transcription factors which are the homologs of cubitus interruptus (ci) in Drosophila. Along with the gene patched (Ptc), ci has been implicated in the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction pathway. To assess the role of Gli in embryogenesis, we compared its expression with that of Ptc and Hh family members in mouse. We(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major pathogens associated with adult periodontitis, a major chronic inflammatory disease. Potent proteinases elaborated by these bacteria aid directly and indirectly in both the development of the pathophysiology of the disease and in host defense evasion. For these reasons they are considered key virulence factors.(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding for the Na(+)-glucose co-transporter SGLT2 (SLC5A2) associate with familial renal glucosuria, but the role of SGLT2 in the kidney is incompletely understood. Here, we determined the localization of SGLT2 in the mouse kidney and generated and characterized SGLT2-deficient mice. In wild-type (WT) mice, immunohistochemistry(More)
The murine gene for adipocyte P2 encodes an adipocyte-specific member of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins. The region upstream from the start of transcription of this gene has been found to contain binding sites for the transcription factors c-jun/c-fos and C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and several short sequence elements found in(More)
Large collections of knockout organisms facilitate the elucidation of gene functions. Here we used retroviral insertion or homologous recombination to disrupt 472 genes encoding secreted and membrane proteins in mice, providing a resource for studying a large fraction of this important class of drug target. The knockout mice were subjected to a systematic(More)
Normal sensory transduction requires the efficient disposal of acid (H+) generated by neuronal and sensory receptor activity. Multiple highly sensitive transport mechanisms have evolved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms to maintain acidity within strict limits. It is currently assumed that the multiplicity of these processes provides a biological(More)