Kenneth A Hughes

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OBJECTIVE This study examines urinary alpha(1)-microglobulin as a marker of early nephropathy in type 2 diabetic Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians in Singapore. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed on 590 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients (296 males, 294 females) who were on routine follow-up at a primary care clinic.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of lowering the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criterion for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) on the prevalence of IFG, the risks of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with IFG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three studies were used: 1). the 1998 National Health Survey (NHS98), a randomly selected(More)
The association between the metabolic syndrome (MS) to ischemic heart disease (IHD) has not been established prospectively in Asian populations. We carried out registry linkage, using unique national identity numbers, to identify incident IHD events in subjects without diabetes mellitus or IHD from two cross-sectional studies of Chinese, Malays and Asian(More)
OBJECTIVE This prospective study in Singapore investigated the relationships of established coronary risk factors with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) for Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian males. SUBJECTS A cohort (consisting of 2879 males without diagnosed CHD) derived from three previous cross-sectional surveys. METHODS Individual baseline data(More)
INTRODUCTION Ethnic differences exist in patients with diabetes mellitus. Not much is known about such differences in Asian populations. The aim of the study was to determine ethnic differences among Chinese, Malay and Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore. METHODS The study design was cross-sectional, involving 967 patients who were(More)
BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis frequently remits during pregnancy, for unknown reasons. Since an immune response to paternally inherited fetal HLA can occur during normal pregnancy and since rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder with a known HLA class II antigen association, we tested the hypothesis that maternal-fetal disparity in HLA(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of "pre-hypertension" (pre-HTN) itself, and in combination with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in relation to mortality has not been assessed in Asian populations. METHODS From three cross-sectional studies conducted in Singapore (baseline 1982-1995), 5830 persons were grouped into normotensive (NT), pre-HTN or(More)
OBJECTIVE The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) proposes that central obesity is an "essential" component of the metabolic syndrome, while the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) proposes that central obesity is an "optional" component. This study examines the effect of the metabolic syndrome with and(More)
INTRODUCTION This is the first prospective cohort study in Singapore to describe the incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke among Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study is a longitudinal follow-up study on a general population cohort of 5920 persons drawn from 3 previous(More)