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Due to their small size, nanoparticles have distinct properties compared with the bulk form of the same materials. These properties are rapidly revolutionizing many areas of medicine and technology. Despite the remarkable speed of development of nanoscience, relatively little is known about the interaction of nanoscale objects with living systems. In a(More)
Nanoparticles in a biological fluid (plasma, or otherwise) associate with a range of biopolymers, especially proteins, organized into the "protein corona" that is associated with the nanoparticle and continuously exchanging with the proteins in the environment. Methodologies to determine the corona and to understand its dependence on nanomaterial properties(More)
The search for understanding the interactions of nanosized materials with living organisms is leading to the rapid development of key applications, including improved drug delivery by targeting nanoparticles, and resolution of the potential threat of nanotechnological devices to organisms and the environment. Unless they are specifically designed to avoid(More)
Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors can mean that nanoparticles can reach(More)
Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly being used as a catalyst in the automotive industry. Consequently, increasing amounts of CeO2 NPs are expected to enter the environment where their fate in and potential impacts are unknown. In this paper we describe the fate and effects of CeO2 NPs of three different sizes (14, 20, and 29 nm) in(More)
Nanoparticles present enormous surface areas and are found to enhance the rate of protein fibrillation by decreasing the lag time for nucleation. Protein fibrillation is involved in many human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Fibril formation occurs by nucleation-dependent kinetics, wherein(More)
Nanoparticles enter cells through active processes, thanks to their capability of interacting with the cellular machinery. The protein layer (corona) that forms on their surface once nanoparticles are in contact with biological fluids, such as the cell serum, mediates the interactions with cells in situ. As a consequence of this, here we show that the same(More)
What the biological cell, organ, or barrier actually "sees" when interacting with a nanoparticle dispersed in a biological medium likely matters more than the bare material properties of the particle itself. Typically the bare surface of the particle is covered by several biomolecules, including a select group of proteins drawn from the biological medium.(More)