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Although the literature on alternatives to effect indicators is growing, there has been little attention given to evaluating causal and composite (formative) indicators. This paper provides an overview of this topic by contrasting ways of assessing the validity of effect and causal indicators in structural equation models (SEMs). It also draws a distinction… (More)

The paper discusses the use of latent variables in psychology and social science research. Local independence, expected value true scores, and nondeterministic functions of observed variables are three types of definitions for latent variables. These definitions are reviewed and an alternative "sample realizations" definition is presented. Another section… (More)

- Kenneth A Bollen, Shawn Bauldry, Stephen Cole, Keith Marcus, Cameron Mcintosh, Stan Mulaik +2 others
- 2012

- Jeremy C Biesanz, Natalia Deeb-Sossa, Alison A Papadakis, Kenneth A Bollen, Patrick J Curran
- Psychological methods
- 2004

The coding of time in growth curve models has important implications for the interpretation of the resulting model that are sometimes not transparent. The authors develop a general framework that includes predictors of growth curve components to illustrate how parameter estimates and their standard errors are exactly determined as a function of receding… (More)

- Patrick J Curran, Kenneth A Bollen, Pamela Paxton, James Kirby, Feinian Chen
- Multivariate behavioral research
- 2002

The noncentral chi-square distribution plays a key role in structural equation modeling (SEM). The likelihood ratio test statistic that accompanies virtually all SEMs asymptotically follows a noncentral chi-square under certain assumptions relating to misspecification and multivariate distribution. Many scholars use the noncentral chi-square distribution in… (More)

- Marie Camerota, Kenneth A. Bollen
- PloS one
- 2016

The "fetal origins" hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in… (More)

- Kenneth A Bollen, Judea Pearl, K A Bollen, J Pearl, S L Morgan, In S L Morgan
- 2014

Causality was at the center of the early history of structural equation models (SEMs) which continue to serve as the most popular approach to causal analysis in the social sciences. Through decades of development, critics and defenses of the capability of SEMs to support causal inference have accumulated. A variety of misunderstandings and myths about the… (More)

- Rebecca T. Slifkin, Kerry E. Kilpatrick, Matthew C. Johnsen, Kenneth A. Bollen
- Health care financing review
- 1997

In this article, the authors present a resident-based reimbursement system for intermediate care facilities for the mentally retarded (ICFs-MR), which represent a large and growing proportion of the medicaid budget. The statistical relationship between resident disability level and the expected cost of caring for the individual is estimated, allowing for… (More)

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