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The applicability of 5 conventional guidelines for construct measurement is critically examined: (a) Construct indicators should be internally consistent for valid measures, (b) there are optimal magnitudes of correlations between items, (c) the validity of measures depends on the adequacy with which a specified domain is sampled, (d) within-construct… (More)

Although the literature on alternatives to effect indicators is growing, there has been little attention given to evaluating causal and composite (formative) indicators. This paper provides an overview of this topic by contrasting ways of assessing the validity of effect and causal indicators in structural equation models (SEMs). It also draws a distinction… (More)

A controversial area in covariance structure models is the assessment of overall model fit. Researchers have expressed concern over the influence of sample size on measures of fit. Many contradictory claims have been made regarding which fit statistics are affected by N. Part of the confusion is due to there being two types of sample size effects that are… (More)

Decomposing the total effects of one variable on another into direct and indirect effects has long been of interest to researchers who use path analysis. In this paper, I review the decomposition of effects in general structural equation models with latent and observed variables. I present the two approaches to defining total effects. One is based on sums… (More)

- Kenneth A Bollen
- Annual review of psychology
- 2002

The paper discusses the use of latent variables in psychology and social science research. Local independence, expected value true scores, and nondeterministic functions of observed variables are three types of definitions for latent variables. These definitions are reviewed and an alternative "sample realizations" definition is presented. Another section… (More)

- K A Bollen, K F Ting
- Psychological methods
- 2000

The authors propose a confirmatory tetrad analysis test to distinguish causal from effect indicators in structural equation models. The test uses "nested" vanishing tetrads that are often implied when comparing causal and effect indicator models. The authors present typical models that researchers can use to determine the vanishing tetrads for 4 or more… (More)

- Kenneth A Bollen, Shawn Bauldry
- Psychological methods
- 2011

In the last 2 decades attention to causal (and formative) indicators has grown. Accompanying this growth has been the belief that one can classify indicators into 2 categories: effect (reflective) indicators and causal (formative) indicators. We argue that the dichotomous view is too simple. Instead, there are effect indicators and 3 types of variables on… (More)

- Feinian Chen, Patrick J Curran, Kenneth A Bollen, James Kirby, Pamela Paxton
- Sociological methods & research
- 2008

This article is an empirical evaluation of the choice of fixed cutoff points in assessing the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) test statistic as a measure of goodness-of-fit in Structural Equation Models. Using simulation data, the authors first examine whether there is any empirical evidence for the use of a universal cutoff, and then… (More)

- Kenneth A Bollen
- Psychological methods
- 2007

R. D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) have argued that causal (formative) indicators are inherently subject to interpretational confounding. That is, they have argued that using causal (formative) indicators leads the empirical meaning of a latent variable to be other than that assigned to it by a researcher. Their critique of causal (formative)… (More)

- Patrick J Curran, Kenneth A Bollen, Pamela Paxton, James Kirby, Feinian Chen
- Multivariate behavioral research
- 2002

The noncentral chi-square distribution plays a key role in structural equation modeling (SEM). The likelihood ratio test statistic that accompanies virtually all SEMs asymptotically follows a noncentral chi-square under certain assumptions relating to misspecification and multivariate distribution. Many scholars use the noncentral chi-square distribution in… (More)