Kenneth A Bachmann

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Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists(More)
Scaling of the quantified dispositional parameters of xenobiotics from animals to man is of interest from the standpoint of toxicology (e.g., poisoning and risk assessment). Scaling is also important from the standpoint of therapeutics because it represents a strategy for predicting first-use-in-human doses in clinical trials of investigational new drugs.(More)
This study was undertaken to determine whether rofecoxib can interfere with CYP1A2 activity in humans using theophylline as a probe substrate. Single oral doses of theophylline were administered to each of three panels of 12 healthy subjects receiving daily doses of rofecoxib for 7 days to examine the effect of rofecoxib administration on the absorption and(More)
A dose-response curve for the hypoprothrombinemic effect of brodifacoum 3-[-3(4'-bromobiphenyl-4-yl) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1-yl] -4-hydroxycoumarin, was constructed using doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.33 mg/kg. Brodifacoum exhibited a remarkably steep dose-response curve. Brodifacoum failed to exhibit a dose-dependent effect on the degradation rate(More)
We have investigated several in silico and in vitro methods to improve our ability to predict potential drug interactions of antibiotics. Our focus was to identify those antibiotics that activate pregnane X receptor (PXR) and induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. Human PXR activation was screened using reporter assays in HepG2 cells,(More)
Orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) have been implicated in the regulation of lipids. Several clinical studies conducted either prospectively or epidemiologically have pointed to a link between the regulation of hepatic CYP enzymes and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and/or apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). The treatment of rats with a series of imidazole inducers of CYP3A(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the use of inhibitory constants (Ki) determined from in vitro experiments in the prediction of the significance of inhibitory drug-drug interactions (DDIs). DATA SOURCES Searches of MEDLINE (1966-August 2004) and manual review of journals, conference proceedings, reference textbooks, and Web sites were performed using the key search(More)
Very few antagonists have been identified for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR). These molecules may be of use for modulating the effects of therapeutic drugs, which are potent agonists for this receptor (e.g., some anticancer compounds and macrolide antibiotics), with subsequent effects on transcriptional regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and(More)
The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the oral clearance (CL) of chlorzoxazone could be estimated accurately from a single plasma chlorzoxazone measurement. In 6 healthy male subjects the mean clearance estimate (CLest) from a single 6-hour postdose measurement of plasma chlorzoxazone was within 6% of the actual mean CL calculated(More)
1. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were used to predict in vivo hepatic clearance (CL(hepatic)) from estimates of in vitro intrinsic clearance (CL' int). 2. (CL' int) was estimated for phenytoin, valproic acid, carbamazepine, theophylline, quinidine and procainamide after their addition to hepatocytes suspended either in human serum or in serum-free media.(More)