Kennedy Francis Shortridge

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A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
BACKGROUND In 1997, the first documented instance of human respiratory disease and death associated with a purely avian H5N1 influenza virus resulted in an overall case-fatality rate of 33%. The biological basis for the severity of human H5N1 disease has remained unclear. We tested the hypothesis that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation has a role. (More)
The origin of the H5N1 influenza viruses that killed six of eighteen infected humans in 1997 and were highly pathogenic in chickens has not been resolved. These H5N1 viruses transmitted directly to humans from infected poultry. In the poultry markets in Hong Kong, both H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating, raising the possibility of genetic(More)
The reported transmission of avian H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the isolation of these viruses from Hong Kong poultry markets lend urgency to studies of their ecology and pathogenicity. We found that H9N2 viruses from North America differ from those of Asia. The North American viruses, which infect primarily domestic turkeys, replicated poorly in(More)
BACKGROUND In May, 1997, a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong was admitted to the hospital and subsequently died from influenza pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Reye's syndrome, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. An influenza A H5N1 virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate of the boy. Preceding this incident, avian(More)
The transmission of H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the realization that the A/Hong Kong/156/97-like (H5N1) (abbreviated HK/156/97) genome complex may be present in H9N2 viruses in southeastern China necessitated a study of the distribution and characterization of H9N2 viruses in poultry in the Hong Kong SAR in 1999. Serological studies indicated that(More)
A novel coronavirus (SCoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SCoV-like viruses were isolated from Himalayan palm civets found in a live-animal market in Guangdong, China. Evidence of virus infection was also detected in other animals (including a raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides) and in humans working at the same(More)
BACKGROUND Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical presentation of the first 12 patients and options for rapid viral diagnosis. METHODS Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture-confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. The clinical presentation and risk(More)
In 1997, 18 cases of influenza in Hong Kong (bird flu) caused by a novel H5N1 (chicken) virus resulted in the deaths of six individuals and once again raised the specter of a potentially devastating influenza pandemic. Slaughter of the poultry in the live bird markets removed the source of infection and no further human cases of H5N1 infection have(More)