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The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer(More)
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular(More)
Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other(More)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer and its overexpression is associated with decreased survival. With progression, prostate cancer cells switch from epidermal growth factor (EGF) to transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) synthesis, which contributes to autocrine(More)
The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) plays an important role in aerobic glycolysis and is a mediator of the Warburg effect in tumors. It was previously thought that tumor cells switch expression of PKM from normal tissue-expressed PKM1 to tumor-specific PKM2 via an alternative splicing mechanism. This view was challenged by a recent report demonstrating(More)
The management of melanoma has evolved owing to improved understanding of its molecular drivers. To augment the current understanding of the prevalence, patterns, and associations of mutations in this disease, the results of clinical testing of 699 advanced melanoma patients using a pan-cancer next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of hotspot regions in 46(More)
The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the(More)
BACKGROUND Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common solid tumors in adolescent and young adult males (age 15 and 35 years) and remain one of the most curable of all solid malignancies. However a subset of patients will have tumors that are refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. The management of this refractory population remains challenging and(More)
BACKGROUND While clinical outcomes following immunotherapy have shown an association with tumor mutation load using whole exome sequencing (WES), its clinical applicability is currently limited by cost and bioinformatics requirements. METHODS We developed a method to accurately derive the predicted total mutation load (PTML) within individual tumors from(More)
PURPOSE We determined the frequency of recurrent hotspot mutations in 46 cancer-related genes across tumor histologies in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS We reviewed data from 500 consecutive patients who underwent genomic profiling on an IRB-approved prospective clinical protocol in the Phase I program at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Archival(More)
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