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YggB and MscL are the major mechanosensitive channels in Escherichia coli, and each can rescue the double knockout mutant from osmotic downshock. However, the role of MscL in wild-type bacteria is in question, not only because cells without MscL survive severe osmotic downshocks, but because 1.8 times more suction is required to gate MscL than YggB under(More)
A key molecule of sensing machineries essential for survival upon hypo-osmotic shock is the mechanosensitive channel. The bacterial mechanosensitive channel MscS functions directly for this purpose by releasing cytoplasmic solutes out of the cell, whereas plant MscS homologues are found to function in chloroplast organization. Here we show that the fission(More)
Corynebacterium glutamicum MscCG, also referred to as NCgl1221, exports glutamate when biotin is limited in the culture medium. MscCG is a homolog of Escherichia coli MscS, which serves as an osmotic safety valve in E. coli cells. Patch-clamp experiments using heterogeneously expressed MscCG have shown that MscCG is a mechanosensitive channel gated by(More)
MscS is a mechanosensitive channel that is ubiquitous among bacteria. Recent progress in the genome projects has revealed that homologs of MscS are also present in eukaryotes, but whether they operate as ion channels is unknown. In this study we cloned MSC1, a homolog of MscS in Chlamydomonas, and examined its function when expressed in Escherichia coli.(More)
MscL is a bacterial mechanosensitive channel that is activated directly by membrane stretch. Although the gene has been cloned and the crystal structure of the closed channel has been defined, how membrane tension causes conformational changes in MscL remains largely unknown. To identify the site where MscL senses membrane tension, we examined the function(More)
Bacterial cells avoid lysis in response to hypoosmotic shock through the opening of the mechanosensitive channel MscL. Upon channel opening, MscL is thought to expand in the plane of the membrane and form a large pore with an estimated diameter of 3-4 nm. Here, we set out to analyze the closed and open structure of cell-free MscL. To this end, we(More)
Ciliates and flagellates temporarily swim backwards on collision by generating a mechanoreceptor potential. Although this potential has been shown to be associated with cilia in Paramecium, the molecular entity of the mechanoreceptor has remained unknown. Here we show that Chlamydomonas cells express TRP11, a member of the TRP (transient receptor potential)(More)
Many free-swimming unicellular organisms show negative gravitaxis, i.e. tend to swim upward, although their specific densities are higher than the medium density. To obtain clues to the mechanism of this behavior, we examined how a mutation in motility or behavior affects the gravitaxis in Chlamydomonas. A phototaxis mutant, ptx3, deficient in membrane(More)
The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) is a bacterial mechanosensitive channel that opens in response to rapid hypoosmotic stress. Since MscS can be opened solely by membrane stretch without help from any accessory protein, the lipid-protein interface must play a crucial role in sensing membrane tension. In this study, the hydrophobic(More)
In the mechanism underlying the phototactic behavior of Chlamydomonas, Ca(2+) has been thought to control the dominance between the two flagella so as to steer the cell to correct directions. A newly isolated mutant, lsp1, that displays weak phototaxis was found to be defective in this Ca(2+)-dependent shift in flagellar dominance; in demembranated and(More)