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To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been conserved remarkably during evolution and is widely expressed in the mammalian brain. In Drosophila, mutation of the PACAP homologue results in behavioral defects, including impaired olfaction-associated learning and changes in ethanol sensitivity. Here, we report the generation of mice(More)
The effects of novel adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists KF17837 ((E)-1,3-dipropyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3, 7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione) and KW-6002 ((E)-1,3-diethyl-8-(3, 4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione), on rotational behavior induced by apomorphine or L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) were investigated in(More)
We aimed to reveal what is coded in the basal ganglia of domestic chicks. In the water-reinforced 'go' task, chicks learned to peck selectively at a colored bead in order to obtain a drop of water. Out of 38 units obtained, seven showed excitatory activities specifically during the reward period. In the food-reinforced go/no-go task, chicks learned to(More)
Animals are predisposed to memorize specific features of objects they encounter, and to link them with behavioral outputs in a selective manner. In this study, we examined whether chicks memorize objects by colors, and how they exploit the memorized color cues for selective pecking in 1- to 2-days-old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica). Ball-shaped beads(More)
NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase was found in several tissues of the pupa of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. This enzyme was highly purified from the whole bodies of pupae. This is the first isolation of the enzyme from insect materials. The purified enzyme gave a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The reaction catalyzed by the(More)
BACKGROUND To analyse risk factors that influence the recurrence of endometrioma after laparoscopic excision. METHODS A total of 224 patients who had a minimum of 2 years of post-operative follow-up after laparoscopic ovarian endometrioma excision were studied retrospectively. Recurrence was defined as the presence of endometrioma more than 2 cm in size,(More)
The ability of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists to exhibit antiparkinsonian activity has recently been reported, but the mechanisms of action are still unknown. Since A(2A) receptors have been localized to GABAergic striatopallidal neurons, it is probable that these antagonists affect the activity of these neurons. In the present study, extracellular(More)
The agar plate method is a new technique with high detection rates for coprological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. This report details modifications of the technique and establishes a standardized procedure. We recommend that all plates should be carefully observed using a microscope because macroscopic observation can lead to false negative results.(More)