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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with no established treatment. To better understand the pathology and develop a treatment modality for SCI, an understanding of the physiological changes following SCI at the molecular level is essential. However, studies on SCI have primarily used rodent models, and few studies have examined SCI in(More)
Conventional burr-hole buttons sometimes do not fit the burr hole well due to the curvature of the surrounding bone. An irregular surface at the border between the button and the surrounding skull may appear unaesthetic. The major problem is the difference between the curvature radius of the skull and the burr-hole button in contact with the skull. To solve(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE In animal models, the magnitude of early post-ischemic hyperemia tends to correlate with the duration and intensity of prior ischemic insult. The aim of this study was to determine whether early post-ischemic hyperemia in human brain during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with the severity of cerebral ischemic insult(More)
OBJECT Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) impairs cognitive function and is often detected on cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. The purpose of the present study is to investigate structural brain damage seen on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion and cognitive impairment after CEA. (More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare but serious complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of the present study was to determine whether intraoperative blood flow velocity (BFV) monitoring in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) could be used as a reliable technique to(More)
BACKGROUND We previously identified unsaturated (16:1, 18:1, and 18:2) but not saturated (12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0) lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) as potent factors for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dedifferentiation. Unsaturated LPAs strongly induce VSMC dedifferentiation via the coordinated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brain temperature is determined by the balance between heat produced by cerebral energy turnover and heat removed by cerebral blood flow. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether brain temperature measured noninvasively using proton MR spectroscopy can detect cerebral hemodynamic impairment in patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Peripheral nerve damage of the cornea is a complication following surgery or infection which may lead to decreased visual function. We examined the efficacy of the semaphorin 3A inhibitor, SM-345431, in promoting regeneration of peripheral nerves in a mouse corneal transplantation model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS P0-Cre/Floxed-EGFP mice(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles HLA-DQ8 and the mouse homologue I-A(g7) lacking a canonical aspartic acid residue at position beta57 are associated with coeliac disease and type I diabetes. However, the role of this single polymorphism in disease initiation and progression remains poorly understood. The lack of Asp 57 creates a(More)
BACKGROUND Common carotid artery (CCA) occlusive disease may cause hemodynamic cerebral ischemia resulting in the development of ischemic symptoms. The blood flow in the superficial temporal artery (STA) ipsilateral to the occluded CCA is usually poor, which limits its use as a donor artery for extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass surgery. CLINICAL(More)