Kenji Toyonaga

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Tuberculosis remains a fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which contains various unique components that affect the host immune system. Trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM; also called cord factor) is a mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid that is the most studied immunostimulatory component of M. tuberculosis. Despite five decades of research on(More)
Cord factor, also called trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), is a potent mycobacterial adjuvant. We herein report that the C-type lectin MCL (also called Clec4d) is a TDM receptor that is likely to arise from gene duplication of Mincle (also called Clec4e). Mincle is known to be an inducible receptor recognizing TDM, whereas MCL was constitutively expressed in(More)
Mincle [macrophage inducible Ca(2+)-dependent (C-type) lectin; CLEC4E] and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin; CLEC4D) are receptors for the cord factor TDM (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate), a unique glycolipid of mycobacterial cell-surface components, and activate immune cells to confer adjuvant activity. Although it is known that receptor-TDM interactions require(More)
We consider eight problems in which we maximize or minimize threshold probabilities in discounted Markov decision processes with bounded reward set. We show that such problems are classified to two equivalence classes and give a relationship between optimal values and optimal policies of problems in each equivalence class. Literatures relative to such(More)
Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize(More)
Phosphatidyl-inositol mannosides (PIM) are glycolipids unique to mycobacteria and other related bacteria that stimulate host immune responses and are implicated in mycobacteria pathogenicity. Here, we found that the FcRγ-coupled C-type lectin receptor DCAR (dendritic cell immunoactivating receptor; gene symbol Clec4b1) is a direct receptor for PIM.(More)
9:25 Opening Address from Chair 9:30 Spectral mapping theorem and asymptotic behavior of quantum walks on infinite graphs Etsuo SEGAWA (Tohoku Univ., JAPAN) 10:10 Tea Break 10:20 Seidel matrices with precisely three distinct eigenvalues Gary GREAVES (Tohoku Univ., JAPAN) 11:00 Tea Break 11:10 On the characteristic of a multiple eigenvalue of an Hermitian(More)
For an Hermitian matrix whose graph is a tree and for a given eigenvalue having Parter vertices, the possibilities for the multiplicity are considered. If V = {v1, . . . , vk} is a fragmenting Parter set in a tree relative to the eigenvalue λ, and Ti+1 is the component of T−{v1, v2, . . . , vi} in which vi+1 lies, it is shown that k ∑ i Ni = mA(λ)+2k−1, in(More)
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