Kenji Takabayashi

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BACKGROUND & AIMS We tested whether the attenuation of experimental colitis by live probiotic bacteria is due to their immunostimulatory DNA, whether toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required, and whether nonviable probiotics are effective. METHODS Methylated and unmethylated genomic DNA isolated from probiotics (VSL-3), DNAse-treated probiotics and(More)
Cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 9p21 are characteristic of malignant melanomas, gliomas, lung cancers and leukaemias. From a panel of 46 human malignant cell lines, we localized by positional cloning the most frequently deleted region on 9p21. Sequence analysis of the isolated fragment reveals two open reading frames identical to the recently(More)
Adenosine agonists inhibit TNF-alpha production in macrophage and monocytes, but the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we studied the human macrophage cell line U937 to determine the adenosine receptor subtypes responsible and the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved. The A1/A3 agonist N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine (I-ABA) decreased(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are capable of cross-presenting exogenous Ag to CD8(+) CTLs. Detection of microbial products by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to activation of DCs and subsequent orchestration of an adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that microbial TLR ligands could activate DCs to cross-present Ag to CTLs. Using DCs and CTLs in an in vitro(More)
5'-Deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (methylthioadeno-sine: ortho-phosphate methylthioribosyltransferase, EC 24.2.28; MTAP) plays a role in purine and polyamine metabolism and in the regulation of transmethylation reactions. MTAP is abundant in normal cells but is deficient in many cancers. Recently, the genes for the cyclin-dependent kinase(More)
Immunostimulatory sequence (ISS) DNA containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides stimulate NK and APC to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-alphabeta and -gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 and -12, and to express costimulatory surface molecules such as CD40, B7-1, and B7-2. Although ISS DNA has little direct effect on T cells by these criteria,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Impaired mucosal barrier, cytokine imbalance, and dysregulated CD4(+) T cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS-DNA) and their synthetic oligonucleotide analogs (ISS-ODNs) are derived from bacterial DNA, are potent activators of innate(More)
Epidemiological evidence points to the inverse relationship between microbial exposure and the prevalence of allergic asthma and autoimmune diseases in Westernized countries. The molecular basis for this observation has not yet been completely delineated. Here we report that the administration of certain toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, via the activation(More)
Methionine dependency has been reported in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Thus, L-methionine deprivation might have potential value for the treatment of human cancers with a methionine requirement. L-Methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase has been reported to decrease plasma methionine levels and to inhibit tumor growth in experimental(More)
Bacterial DNA is enriched in unmethylated CpG motifs that have been shown to activate the innate immune system. These immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS) induce inflammation when injected directly into joints. However, the role of bacterial DNA in systemic arthritis is not known. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine whether ISS(More)