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To verify the availability of pharmacokinetic parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, hepatic availability (Fh) and the fraction absorbed multiplied by intestinal availability (FaFg) were evaluated to determine their contributions to absolute bioavailability (F) after intravenous and oral administrations. These results were compared with those for humans using 13(More)
This study aimed to establish a practical and convenient method of predicting intestinal availability (F(g)) in humans for highly permeable compounds at the drug discovery stage, with a focus on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We constructed a "simplified F(g) model," described using only metabolic parameters, assuming that passive diffusion is dominant when(More)
Sphingomonas sp. KT-1 hydrolyzes poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) containing alpha- and beta-amide units and has at least two different types of PAA hydrolases. The PAA hydrolase-1 hydrolyzes selectively beta-beta amide units in PAA. Molecular cloning of PAA hydrolase-1 from Sphingomonas sp. KT-1 has been carried out to characterize its gene products. Genetic(More)
Artificial diets for the colydiid beetle, Dastarcus helophoroides, a predator of cerambycid beetles and xylocopid bees, were evaluated. Hatched larvae were reared on artificial diets composed of silkworm pupa-powder, dry yeasts, yeast extract, sucrose, peptone, squid liver oil, preservatives and distilled water, but their emergence rate was very low. If(More)
The object of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of micafungin, a new anti-fungal agent of the echinocandin class, to optimize dosing in Japanese patients with fungal infections. Population pharmacokinetics parameters were determined using NONMEM based on pharmacokinetic data from 198 subjects in seven clinical studies,(More)
Purpose. We evaluated the first-pass effects in vivo by the intestine and liver during enterohepatic circulation (EHC) by simultaneously measuring the portal and venous plasma concentrations of the rat. Methods. The venous and upper portal blood vessels were cannulated through the jugular and the pyloric veins, respectively, to obtain simultaneously blood(More)
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetic profile and investigate the effective concentration of micafungin in Japanese male patients with deep-seated mycosis. 66 patients were treated with i.v. micafungin 12.5–150 mg intravenously for up to 56 days. At this dose range, micafungin showed linear pharmacokinetics, and the mean values of(More)
The objective of this study was to propose the appropriate dosage regimen of micafungin for pediatric use, considering the effects of dose-linearity, age and other cofactors on the pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic analysis of micafungin and its active metabolites (M1 and M2) after intravenous infusion at doses of 1 to 3 mg/kg was conducted for 19 Japanese(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor prognosis compared to other subtypes, and effective treatment options are limited to cytotoxic agents, including microtubule-targeting agents, due to the lack of molecular targets. Here, we examined the combined effect of sepantronium bromide (YM155) and microtubule-targeting agents in TNBC models. The(More)
1. Rats are frequently used in pharmacokinetic studies during drug discovery. However, there is limited information regarding species differences in intestinal availability (Fg) between rats and humans. 2. Here, we directly estimated the fraction of dose absorbed in the portal vein (FaFg) of rats for nine CYP3A substrates using portal-systemic concentration(More)