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Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process through which a portion of the cytoplasm is delivered to lysosomes to be degraded. Although the primary role of autophagy in many organisms is in adaptation to starvation, autophagy is also thought to be important for normal turnover of cytoplasmic contents, particularly in quiescent cells such as(More)
The most important function of carotenoid pigments, especially beta-carotene in higher plants, is to protect organisms against photooxidative damage (G. Britton, in T. W. Goodwin, ed., Plant Pigments--1988, 1988; N. I. Krinsky, in O. Isler, H. Gutmann, and U. Solms, ed., Carotenoids--1971, 1971). beta-Carotene also functions as a precursor of vitamin A in(More)
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)
Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
Transcatheter hepatic artery embolization was performed in 120 patients with unresectable hepatoma. The cumulative one-year survival rate was 44%. In most cases follow-up angiography revealed the selective disappearance of tumor vessels, and computed tomography demonstrated a marked decrease in tumor density without any changes in the surrounding liver(More)
Neurons in the adult brain have a very complex morphology with many processes, including tremendously long axons. Since dendrites and axons play key roles in the input and output of neural information, respectively, the visualization of complete images of these processes is necessary to reveal the mechanism of neural information processing. Here we made a(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in the synthesis and chaperoning of membrane-associated and secreted proteins. The membrane is also an important site of Ca(2+) storage and release. Calreticulin is a unique ER luminal resident protein. The protein affects many cellular functions, both in the ER lumen and outside of the ER environment. In(More)
Potato tubers contain a complex group of proteins of 20 to 24 kDa that exhibit homology to Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors. We isolated three cDNAs and two genomic clones that encode members of the potato Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor (PKPI) family. Comparison of the structures of these and other cloned genes indicated that genes of the PKPI family can(More)
To study the role of medial frontal cortex in learning and memory of sequential procedures, we examined neuronal activity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and supplementary motor area (SMA) while monkeys (n = 2) performed a sequential button press task, "2 x 5 task." In this paradigm, 2 of 16 (4 x 4 matrix) light-emitting diode buttons (called(More)
A new recombinant virus which labeled the infected neurons in a Golgi stain-like fashion was developed. The virus was based on a replication-defective Sindbis virus and was designed to express green fluorescent protein with a palmitoylation signal (palGFP). When the virus was injected into the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei, many neurons were visualized with(More)