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In a differential screen for downstream genes of the neural inducers, we identified two extremely early neural genes induced by Chordin and suppressed by BMP-4: Zic-related-1 (Zic-r1), a zinc finger factor related to the Drosophila pair-rule gene odd-paired, and Sox-2, a Sry-related HMG factor. Expression of the two genes is first detected widely in the(More)
Theta oscillations are believed to play an important role in the coordination of neuronal firing in the entorhinal (EC)-hippocampal system but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We simultaneously recorded from neurons in multiple regions of the EC-hippocampal loop and examined their temporal relationships. Theta-coordinated synchronous spiking of EC(More)
Vertebrate neurogenesis is initiated by the organizer factors that inhibit antineuralizing activities of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the ectoderm. Here, we report a candidate mediator of neuralization, SoxD. Expression of SoxD starts at late blastula stages widely in the prospective ectoderm and becomes restricted to the dorsal ectoderm by(More)
We demonstrate directed differentiation of telencephalic precursors from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using optimized serum-free suspension culture (SFEB culture). Treatment with Wnt and Nodal antagonists (Dkk1 and LeftyA) during the first 5 d of SFEB culture causes nearly selective neural differentiation in ES cells ( approximately 90%). In the presence(More)
We have identified a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) that promotes neural differentiation of mouse ES cells. SDIA accumulates on the surface of PA6 stromal cells and induces efficient neuronal differentiation of cocultured ES cells in serum-free conditions without use of either retinoic acid or embryoid bodies. BMP4, which acts as an(More)
Brain systems communicate by means of neuronal oscillations at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In anesthetized rats, we find that neocortical "slow" oscillation engages neurons in prefrontal, somatosensory, entorhinal, and subicular cortices into synchronous transitions between UP and DOWN states, with a corresponding bimodal distribution of their(More)
From early stages of development, Sox2-class transcription factors (Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3) are expressed in neural tissues and sensory epithelia. In this report, we show that Sox2 function is required for neural differentiation of early Xenopus ectoderm. Microinjection of dominant-negative forms of Sox2 (dnSox2) mRNA inhibits neural differentiation of animal(More)
Hippocampal sharp waves (SPWs) and associated fast ("ripple") oscillations (SPW-Rs) in the CA1 region are among the most synchronous physiological patterns in the mammalian brain. Using two-dimensional arrays of electrodes for recording local field potentials and unit discharges in freely moving rats, we studied the emergence of ripple oscillations (140-220(More)
Precisely how rhythms support neuronal communication remains obscure. We investigated interregional coordination of gamma oscillations using high-density electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We found that 30-80 Hz gamma dominated CA1 local field potentials (LFPs) on the descending phase of CA1 theta waves during(More)
Neuronal oscillations allow for temporal segmentation of neuronal spikes. Interdependent oscillators can integrate multiple layers of information. We examined phase-phase coupling of theta and gamma oscillators in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus during maze exploration and rapid eye movement sleep. Hippocampal theta waves were asymmetric, and estimation(More)